Characteristics and rules for growing apricot Son of Krasnoshchekoy
Apricot with the original name the Son of Krasnoshchekoy is appreciated by gardeners for its unpretentiousness, excellent indicators of frost resistance, excellent yield and a rather piquant taste of fruits. What are the main advantages of the described variety, and what is its agricultural cultivation - further in the article.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
Apricot Son of Krasnoshchekoy is a late-ripening fruit culture, which is the result of selection by Soviet geneticists and breeders.
A new variety was obtained due to the crossing of the popular apricot Krasnoshchekiy with the Golden Summer, and he inherited most of the positive qualities from his first “parent”.
In 1974, a new variety of culture was listed in the State Register of Fruit Plants and recommended for cultivation in the Volga regions. However, as practice shows, the variety bears fruit well in more northern zones, for example, in the Moscow region.
Description of the fruit and appearance of the tree
The son of Krasnoshchekoy is a powerful, medium-tall tree that has an elliptical, slightly raised crown. The crown density is medium, the branches are sprawling, densely covered with “lentils” of light beige color.The variety is characterized by high growth intensity, while new branches grow from the upper buds into several branches, and next year they begin to branch actively.
The green mass of the plant is presented in the form of numerous, rather large, round or heart-shaped, light green leaves with a pointed tip, 7–9 cm long. The edges of the leaves have a characteristic dentate.
During flowering, the tree takes on an extremely spectacular appearance, it forms small snow-white flowers that simply strew the whole plant.
Flowering in the described variety occurs relatively late, so the likelihood of spring freezing is reduced to almost zero.Apricot fruits of medium size, weighing 25-30 g, regular oval shape, about 4.5 cm long and 3.8 cm wide. When the crop grows in the southern regions, the average fruit weight can reach 55-60 g.
Apricots have a saturated yellow, almost orange color, a smooth, slightly pubescent surface, on which a seam is clearly visible, separating the two halves.
Half of the fetus, which is most influenced by the sun, has a characteristic red or crimson blush. The pulp is orange, very juicy, fleshy, without fibers, has a pronounced pleasant aroma.
The palatability of the fruit is excellent, the apricots are very sweet, have a subtle sourness and a slightly bitter aftertaste. In the middle of the fruit is a small bone, which is well separated from the pulp.
Important! Inside the bone is the nucleus, by which it is easy to distinguish the variety Son of Krasnoshchekoy from its "parent". The first core has a bitter taste, the second - sweet.
According to the assessment of tasters, apricot fruits of the described variety are rated at 4.7 points out of a possible 5.At the same time, apricots have a universal purpose, they are excellent for fresh consumption, for preparing all kinds of dishes or for preservation.
Due to the high density of the pulp, the fruits do not boil during the heat treatment, they retain an attractive appearance and taste.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Summer residents engaged in the cultivation of apricot of the described variety, note a number of its positive qualities:
- high resistance to frost, up to -30 ° C;
- excellent taste and marketability of the fruit;
- high yields;
- excellent resistance to diseases that most often affect apricot trees;
- good drought tolerance, ability to tolerate heat normally;
- At the same time, the Son of Krasnoshcheok has some disadvantages:
- uneven ripening of fruits;
- the need for regular pruning of branches due to the intensity of growth;
- instability of productivity indicators.
Did you know? In the middle of the XVII century. apricot kernel oil was used to treat cancer patients, people with ulcers and severe edema. Today, the drug is used for the prevention of cancer. It turned out that the amygdalin and laetrile contained in the oil prevent the formation of cancer cells in the human body.
Pollinators and fruiting periods
The variety belongs to the category of late ripening, the fruits of which are ready for harvest in the last weeks of July or the first decade of August. At the same time, they do not ripen at the same time, because of which it is necessary to harvest several times.The first fruiting in the crop occurs 4–5 years after planting a seedling. Apricot The son of Krasnoshchekoy is self-fertile and does not require the neighborhood of pollinating varieties.
The average yield of the plant is quite high, but can vary from year to year. The main reason for such fluctuations is how well flower buds will survive the winter cold.
The average yield of young plants is about 30 kg. Every year it decreases and reaches 15–20 kg.
One of the main advantages of the described hybrid is its increased resistance to the most dangerous fungal ailments for apricot - moniliosis and kleasterosporiosis.
The plant in very rare cases is affected by these diseases, even if summer weather conditions contribute to their development.
Agriculture cultivating varieties on the site
In order to ensure stable fruiting and good health for the plant, it is necessary to properly plant the seedlings. For this, experts advise adhering to several important rules.
Apricot prefers spacious, well-lit, sunny areas located on a small hill with a groundwater table of at least 2 m.
It is necessary to ensure that the place is reliably protected from cold gusty winds and drafts, which have a negative impact on the health of planting material. The most optimal landing site is considered to be the southern or southwestern slopes.
Important! A tree planted in the lowlands rarely survives due to increased soil moisture, which contributes to rotting of the root system.
A selection of quality seedlings
As planting material, it is recommended to choose annual or biennial seedlings with a well-developed, slightly fibrous root system. It is better not to use older plants, because they do not take root well and bear fruit much later.
When choosing a tree, you need to pay attention to:
- the roots - they should be elastic, strong, fairly thick and white on the cut;
- bark - it should be smooth, without dryness and roughness.
Specialists advise buying seedlings in autumn in specialized stores or fruit nurseries.
Planting material must be placed in a cool place for winter storage, with stable temperature indices of 0 ... + 5 ° C, previously placing root shoots in moist sand or sawdust.Storage of the seedling dug in soil is allowed. To do this, dig a small depression, fill up a layer of sand, tilt a tree and completely sprinkle with soil.In spring, the seedling should be dug up in the first weeks of March so that its roots do not become barred.
Direct landing technology
Planting work must be carried out in early spring, until the moment when the plant begins sap flow.
At the same time, the landing site should be prepared in the fall:
- in a suitable place, dig a recess measuring 70 × 80 cm;
- the earth removed from the pit is mixed in equal proportions with peat, sand and humus, 350-400 g of superphosphate and 1.5 kg of wood ash are added to the soil mixture;
- at the bottom of the ditch there is a drainage layer of crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick 10-15 cm high;
- on top of the drainage layer, a layer of fertile soil is covered;
- the pit is covered with roofing material and left until spring.
The technology of planting a seedling in the spring is based on the following actions:
- The plant is taken out of the shelter, its root system is soaked for 1.5–2 hours in any growth stimulator.
- The prepared ditch is opened, a small mound is made from the fertile soil and a wooden peg is inserted into it to tie the seedling.
- The plant is set on an earthen hill, neatly straightening all the roots.
- The deepening is covered with soil, well tamped.
- A trunk circle is made around the trunk, into which water is poured in the volume of 2-3 buckets.
- The soil around the seedling is mulched with a layer of hay, straw or sawdust.
- The plant is tied to a peg with an elastic tape or soft rope.
Did you know? Many people know that dried fruits are made from apricots, among which dried apricots are the most famous - half the fruit dried in the sun. However, there are many more varieties of dried apricots: kaisa - whole dried fruit without a seed, apricot - whole dried apricot with a seed, ashtak - dried apricot without a seed, into which a dried kernel-nut is later put.
Tree Care Rules
For the full development of the culture, she needs to provide traditional care, which consists in timely hydration, systematic dressing, regular pruning, protection against parasites and various diseases.
Watering and fertilizer
Apricot Son of the Red-cheeked belongs to hygrophilous plants, he loves regular and plentiful watering. It is especially important to provide the culture with moisture during the period of active growth of shoots, in the phase of flowering and fruit setting.
In May and June, the tree is moistened every week, using 40-50 liters of water twice a day. Irrigation measures are recommended in the morning and evening, when there is no scorching sun.
Of course, the frequency of watering should be determined individually, focusing on weather conditions. It is not recommended to pour water under the root. To moisten the plant, you need to dig a ditch around it, which after moistening, you need to sprinkle with soil and mulch.
Important! One of the main mistakes of gardeners is the frequent and plentiful watering of apricot. With such irrigation, there is a risk of stagnation of moisture at the roots of the plant, which leads to their decay.
A month before harvesting, you need to stop watering, since excess moisture has a negative effect on the quality of the fruit: they become watery, loose, less sweet.Apricot begins to be fed from the second year of its growthsince in the first year he receives all the nutrients from the fertile soil that was introduced during planting.
In the spring, experts recommend feeding the plant nitrogen-containing products, for example, urea or ammonium nitrate, which activate the growth of the green mass of the culture.
During the period of active growth, you can fertilize the soil with preparations based on phosphorus and potassium.In the summer, in the phase of growth and ripening of fruits, it is advisable to feed the plant with liquid minerals, whose action is aimed at improving fruiting.The last time during the season it is recommended to feed the crop in the fall, after harvesting the fruits. At this time, it is better to use phosphorus-containing preparations, for example, superphosphates.
Apricot prefers to grow on well-fertilized, nutritious soils. That is why every 2-3 years it is recommended to enrich the earth with organic matter - humus, compost, manure.
Cropping and shaping the crown
As noted above, apricot Son of Krasnoshchekoy has a high growth rate, therefore, needs regular pruning. You can not ignore the procedure of pruning, as it allows you to increase crop yields and promotes good immunity.
The first time the event is carried out when planting a seedling. At this time, the central conductor and skeletal branches are shortened. Similar forming cuttings should be carried out every spring, for 4–5 years.
Every year in early spring and late autumn, sanitary pruning is recommended.during which old, dried, damaged, rotten and with signs of disease branches should be removed.
With severe thickening of the crown, along with the sanitary, it is possible to carry out regulatory trimming.Older trees, if necessary, are subjected to anti-aging pruning, which can be done in two ways:
- cutting small branches inside the crown, which contributes to the exposure of skeletal shoots;
- replacement of the main half of skeletal branches.
For events you need to use a sharpened, sanitized knife. In this case, all sections should be performed smoothly, avoiding the "razlohmachivaniya" wood. After trimming, all areas should be lubricated with garden varieties or chopped charcoal.
Important! If you don’t have a garden varnish or coal at hand, the sections can be coated in several layers with oil paint.
Wrapping a tree before winter
An obligatory procedure for caring for apricot is its preparation for winter. Despite the good winter hardiness of the culture, in spring its buds, in the presence of frosts, can suffer from low temperatures. At the same time, wood rarely suffers from cold weather.
Preparing the plant for the upcoming wintering consists of several important steps:
- loosen the soil of the near-stem circle, mulch with organic materials with a layer of 8-10 cm;
- whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches with a special solution prepared from water, lime, stationery glue, powder clay and copper sulphate;
- around the trunk make a small mound of peat up to 25 cm high;
- the trunk of the plant is wrapped with special "breathing" material or burlap.
For winter, it is recommended to wrap the trees completely, covering them with cardboard boxes or constructing a special shelter.
Diseases and pests of the variety
The son of Krasnoshchek is characterized by high immunity and is rarely affected by pests or diseases. It exerts the greatest resistance against fungal ailments of moniliosis and kleasterosporiosis.
Regularly carrying out the necessary preventive measures and carefully caring for the crop, gardeners almost never encounter problems associated with apricot diseases.
The most effective preventative measures include:
- cleaning the site in the fall of the remnants of vegetation, dry branches;
- sanitary pruning of shoots with their further disposal;
- stripping of bark and treatment of cracks formed on a tree;
- plant protection from frost;
- loosening and mulching of the trunk circle;
- preventive spraying of culture with modern insecticidal and fungicidal preparations;
- wood treatment with a solution of copper sulfate.
- Moniliosis. The fungus, which is the causative agent of the disease, first affects the flowers of the culture, then penetrates the shoots and leaves. As a result of the development of the fungus, living tissue loses moisture, dries, and then completely dies. When a tree is damaged in the summer, fruits that become covered with putrefactive spots suffer. To combat the fungus, the plant is treated with a solution of "Horus" or "Quadrice", the diseased parts are completely destroyed.
- Kleasterosporiosis. A dangerous fungal ailment, manifested in the form of the formation of numerous brown spots on the leaves, which subsequently dry up and “fall out”, forming holes. Fungicides help prevent the development of the disease and stop its spread.
- Cytosporosis. This disease progresses if there are cracks on the cortex, into which the spores of the fungus fall. During the spread of the pathogen, the bark begins to collapse, rot, form abundant gum. To treat the disease, all affected areas are cut off, the wounds are treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate.
Among parasites, the greatest danger to apricot is:
- weevil beetle - affects the buds of plants, flowers, leaves, young shoots;
- Khrushchev - causes severe damage to the root system of culture;
- aphid - eats leaf juice, as a result of which they curl, dry out and fall off.
Broad-spectrum insecticides are considered effective parasitic drugs, for example, Fufanon, Decis, Aktara, Inta-Vir.
Harvesting and storage
As noted above, the apricot Son of Krasnoshchekoy begins to ripen from the end of June, while the ripening of fruits occurs unevenly, which forces gardeners to harvest several times. It is better to pick fruits slightly unripe, which will increase their shelf life.
Specialists advise harvesting on a dry and sunny day. Since apricots are quite fragile fruits, it is recommended to remove them from the branches manually. Plucked fruits are placed in a plastic container (box).For long-term storage, dense, whole fruits are selected, without the presence of damage or disease, each of which is wrapped in white paper and stored in boxes in one layer.
Apricots can be stored for 1–1.5 months under optimal conditions:
- in a dry, cool, well-ventilated area;
- at temperature indicators of about 0 ° C;
- at a relative humidity level of 90–95%.
You can store the fruits in the refrigerator, but when stored for more than 4 weeks, apricots lose their dense structure and taste, become soft and begin to rot.
Did you know? Even when dried, apricots practically do not lose their beneficial properties.
Apricot Son of Krasnoshchekoy is a worthy continuation of his original "parent". The variety is not very fastidious in care, unpretentious in growing, does not need special conditions, but at the same time it is characterized by excellent yield indicators, strong immunity and wonderful taste of the fruit.
In order to get a stable harvest from year to year, it is enough for gardeners to provide the culture with quality care, which consists in the implementation of traditional agricultural practices.