Dutch technology for growing strawberries indoors
You can grow strawberries in greenhouses all year round. The Dutch method is considered ideal for this, which will be discussed in the article. Below is a step-by-step instruction, as well as strawberry varieties suitable for this cultivation technology.
The benefits of strawberry cultivation using Dutch technology
- The method gained its popularity due to a number of advantages:
- Seedlings can be planted in different containers - pots, boxes, pallets, etc.
- Plants are placed vertically, which allows more rational use of space.
- It is used at home, for example, on a balcony, a window sill.
- Year-round fruiting.
- Simplicity of operation.
- The lack of contact of plants with the ground, which excludes their infection with various diseases.
When choosing a variety for planting, it is first necessary to take into account the fact that there is no possibility of natural pollination in the greenhouse, and to give preference to self-pollinated species. In addition, it is important that the berry belongs to the number of remontans, that is, those that are fruited several times during the season. Thus, growing a crop will be more cost-effective.
Did you know? The composition of strawberries includes a large number of antioxidants that help cleanse the body, and also slow its aging.
When using the Dutch method, such strawberries are chosen:
In the described method, plants are placed both horizontally and vertically. It all depends on the area of the greenhouse, as well as the gardener's own preferences.
According to this method, seedlings are placed in rows parallel to the floor of the greenhouse and to each other. This method of cultivation is ideal for farms with large production volumes.
In this case, the boxes with strawberries are located one above the other. Most often, this option is used in the presence of small areas.
Choice of premises
You can grow strawberries using the Dutch method in any rooms and even on the balcony - It is important only to maintain the necessary microclimate parameters and the agricultural technology itself, which will be discussed later.
When preparing the substrate, perlite and peat are used for planting - they are introduced into the cleaned loamy soil. So, peat will increase the porosity of the soil, and perlite will improve its aeration. All this is mixed in equal proportions.
Growth tanks are treated with 4% formalin solution. In the bottom of each, you need to make a hole with a diameter of about 7 mm and pour gravel or pebbles in an amount of 20% of the total volume of the pot.
Important! Ordinary land from the garden is strictly prohibited for use in the cultivation of strawberries by the Dutch method, since it contains a large number of pathogenic microorganisms.
In order to get rich crops, not enough natural light. Greenhouses must be equipped with garden or fluorescent lamps at the rate of 1 sht. on 3 m² premises.They are located at a distance of not less than 1 m from the stands. The duration of daylight hours thus obtained must be at least 12 hours.
Watering and feeding system
Strawberry irrigation is organized in such a way that water does not fall on foliage and fruits. Ideal drip irrigation systemtuned to a frequency of 3-4 drops per minute.
Top dressing is applied in liquid form 2 times per season:
- 2 weeks after transplanting;
- during the dropping of peduncles.
To do this, use a nutrient solution from:
- 10 liters of water;
- 80 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 10 g of potassium chloride.
Equipment and materials for growing strawberries
For cultivation, various containers are used:
- professional systems of plastic pipes;
- special plastic bags.
Shelves are formed from metal elements, on which containers with seedlings are subsequently placed. As mentioned above, additional light sources and an irrigation system are also needed.
Harvesting and growing seedlings
The quality of the planting material directly depends on the volume of harvested crops.
There are two ways to get seedlings:
- Growing uterine plants in open ground. After the onset of cold weather, the rooted mustache of annual bushes is carefully dug up and transferred to a dark place with a temperature of 0 ... + 2 ° C. The day before planting, the sprouts are transferred to room temperature conditions.
- Growing seedlings using the cassette method. In this case, young rooted mustache, which also can withstand at 0 ... + 2 ° С, serves as planting material. However, 1.5 months before disembarkation, the mustache is transferred to containers where it is pre-grown. The first 4 weeks, the sprouts are in a dark place, after which they are transferred to the light. A week later, young plants are transplanted into the greenhouse.
Ready sprouts are planted in a checkerboard pattern with an interval of 25 cm between the bushes, since a compacted planting reduces the size of the fruit.
Important! In order to get high-quality seedlings, on annual bushes it is necessary to remove all the color.
For the normal growth and development of culture, the following conditions are necessary:
- The temperature is about +18 ... + 25 ° С. At indicators below + 12 ° C, plant growth stops. At the time of the appearance of peduncles, the temperature is kept at + 21 ° C.
- Humidity is 70–80%. It is necessary to regularly spray plantings. Also, in the corners of the greenhouse, you can arrange tanks with water.
- Carbon dioxide concentration should be about 0.1%, which is necessary for constant photosynthesis. In order to obtain such an indicator, candles are lit in greenhouses.
Strawberry Bush Care
After all planting recommendations have been complied with, it remains only to maintain the microclimate parameters in the greenhouse, as well as ensure uninterrupted access of water to the irrigation system.
Did you know? Strawberries can be consumed by people who are overweight, as its calorie content is 41 kcal per 100 g. In addition, it has laxative properties and also speeds up metabolism.
Diseases and methods of control
Culture is subject to a number of ailments and pests, a detailed description of which is presented below.
This is a disease of fungal etymology, the symptoms of which are manifested during fruiting. On the surface of the foliage brown spots of different sizes appear that do not have clear boundaries. Over time, the affected areas grow, merging together. The infected green mass dies, which leads to the death of the entire plant.
The main causes of the disease include:
- dense plantations;
- excessive watering and dampness;
- low temperatures.
Fungal disease developing in the ground. Spores affect water-carrying vessels, and the mycelium, in turn, releases toxins that adversely affect strawberries. The lower foliage dries up, and the berries acquire a brown hue. Over time, the entire bush dries.
For the treatment of affected plantings, a 3% Bordeaux mixture is used, which is prepared from:
- 10 liters of water;
- 300 g of copper sulfate;
- 450 g quicklime.
It is a parasite in the form of a miniature worm, which damages the tissues of the roots and stems of the culture by sucking out its juices and secreting toxins. Male nematodes look like a thin yellow thread 2 cm long, and females are shorter and thicker.
The main symptoms of the lesion include:
- slow growth;
- ovary deformation;
- folded leaves.
To combat the pest use infusion of marigolds. For its preparation, it is necessary to withstand 1 kg of flowers for 2 days in 10 liters of water. After using it, you can water strawberry bushes.
Gray-black beetle with a long elongated proboscis. The insect feeds on strawberry leaves. To combat this type of pest, iodine solution is used at the rate of 1 tsp. on a bucket of water. The prepared preparation irrigates the earth.
Thanks to the technology described above from Holland, strawberry can be cultivated year-round in closed ground conditions. The method is quite simple and accessible to everyone. Follow all the recommendations above and grow your favorite berry even on your balcony.