Greenhouse heating with a long burning stove
For heating greenhouses often use homemade long burning stoves of various designs. They use different materials as fuel - firewood, coal, pellets, sawdust, cones. If there is no desire to make homemade products, then you can buy a ready-made design. Various options are available for sale. Let's consider them in more detail.
Features of the use of the furnace
Long-burning stoves are an improved version of the Russian stove, consuming very different solid fuels (firewood, old furniture, sawdust, cones, various rubbish, coal). They were actively used during the civil and Great Patriotic War, when even ordinary firewood was in short supply and boiler rooms were idle.
In them, fuel burns from top to bottom, and as it burns out, the fire sinks lower and lower. This increases the burning time and contributes to the release of more heat. Fuel in such furnaces slowly smolders at high temperatures and burns to the end (pyrolysis). This process is regulated by the intake of air by means of air or blowing.
Did you know? The Americans attribute the invention of the potbelly stove to the famous American politician Benjamin Franklin. In the United States, such stoves are called "thick-bellies."
At the beginning of work, the stove is well heated. Otherwise, the combustion process may stop. The chimney in these structures must be straight and without bending, since it will periodically need to be cleaned of soot, and it must be accessible for such work.
Such devices need to be used when there is the possibility of constant monitoring, because firewood in them needs to be thrown periodically. Under them it’s good to make a foundation and brick them.
The stove should not stand close to quickly flammable and unprepared materials, as metal parts become very hot and can cause ignition. Used wood should not be raw.
Today, there are different types of furnaces for long burning. Let's look at them in more detail.
Important! The first warming up of a new furnace is best done in outdoor conditions, so that coating polymerization occurs. If this is not done, the greenhouse will smell like burnt paint and factory grease.
Simple potbelly stove
The design of any potbelly stove consists of a metal case with a pipe for the removal of smoke and several openings with doors. Fuel is placed in the upper opening, and the lower is used to regulate combustion by air supply.
A variety of fuels can be thrown into a potbelly stove. If you close the choke, the fire burns quietly, and if you open it a little, the combustion process intensifies.
This variety of potbelly stove is named after the area where it was first used. Its design includes an upper ignition chamber, a combustion chamber, a convection jacket and two structures for supplying and distributing air.
Air masses come from the side of the furnace and gradually rise up. The oxygen necessary for combustion enters all layers, and the fuel consumes its necessary amount, and the excess goes further. This provides more active combustion processes.
Did you know? The Japanese call the potbelly stove a daruma furnace. A daruma doll is a traditional Japanese tumbler.
With water circuit
Long burning furnaces can be equipped with a water circuit to ensure a more uniform heating of the greenhouse. Fuel loading is done in the lower part, and a distributor for air masses is pressed inside, which presses the burning wood.
It looks like a disk with a hollow pipe and welded ribs through which air enters the fuel and is distributed over its surface. As the wood burns through, it lowers.
The loading aperture, equipped with a door, is located in the center of the case, and at the bottom there is a cleaning hole and an ash pan. The smoke exhaust pipe is at the top.
Firewood in such a stove burns out in 8 hours, and coal and pellets - in 12 hours.Pipe wiring is mounted around the perimeter of the greenhouse, which is connected to the nozzles of the furnace.
The simplest version of a wood-burning greenhouse stove is a bubafon. This design consists of a metal casing, a press with a hollow pipe and stiffening ribs supplying air to the wood, an ash pan below and a chimney.
Firewood is loaded from above and closed with a press. As the wood burns through, it goes down.
The sawdust variant produces little smoke. In general, the design of such a furnace is typical. Sawdust in a long-burning furnace should smolder slowly, and not quickly burn out. To do this, use a sealed design with scanty air supply to prevent strong burning.
The coal stove has greater heat dissipation, because it runs on high-calorie fuel burning at higher temperatures. Such a furnace is made of refractory bricks or cast iron.
It is better to make a brick furnace for coal, since the metal furnace is highly heated and requires the installation of a protective screen. Due to the fact that the amount of waste increases during coal heating, the ash pan is made large.
Its opening serves as a blower, since air in such devices must come from below. The ash pan is located under the grate, which passes air to the fuel.
The boiler is made of cast iron or the combustion chamber is strengthened with sheets of refractory steel. The walls of the fuel compartment are often made with a slope, so that burnt coal is easier to fall down. The design must necessarily stand on the foundation.
Important! In a coal furnace, you should not make a multi-channel chimney or heating shield, since this causes a risk of burning out. In the coal-fired version, there must be good traction.
Any device for heating in a greenhouse in the winter is better to install approximately in the middle of the room. It is necessary to equip the base for installing a heating system of brick or ceramic or paving slabs.
Set of tools
When installing a long-burning furnace, the following tools must be prepared for heating the greenhouse:
- sizing markers;
- a grinder for cutting metal;
- welding machine;
- protective mask and gloves.
Calculation of the required material
For the manufacture of a heating system, you must first prepare the following materials:
- a barrel of metal at 200 liters;
- metal pipe;
- metal corner;
- steel sheets;
- gas bottle (used).
Did you know? This furnace was designed by Russian scientist I. Butakov. He is the founder of the theory of combined production of electric and thermal energy.
The installation of the furnace is carried out in the following sequence:
- Cut off the balloon from above and make a hole for solid fuel from below.
- Cut an opening for installing a chimney from the side of the cylinder.
- The metal circle should be turned so that it fits into the barrel. A hole for the blower is made in it, and the circle for weighting and clearance near the fuel is finished with metal fittings (corner).
- Pipes of pipe with a shutter are attached to the lid by welding, which will act as a blower.
- A chimney, a door made of a piece of steel or a part of a barrel is fixed by welding. Set the legs.
The operation of such a device for heating consists in burning wood with limited air access. Under gravity, the cover moves downward, indicating the level of fuel burnup.
Popular Shopping Models
You can buy ready-made models of stoves for heating the greenhouse in stores.
The most popular of them:
- Kuznetsova. It is made of brick and has 2 metal registers. Efficiency is approximately 90%. Inside the oven is a special “cap” that connects the hearth to the bottom of this device. It separates gas into cold and hot. In this case, the hot is inside, accumulating heat for heating, and the cold is discharged through the chimney. This unit heats evenly and also limits soot formation.
- "Rocket". The principle of operation of such a device is that at high temperatures, fuel (firewood, coal) decomposes, forming gas that burns in a separate compartment, while giving good heat transfer. This model is fuel efficient. The heating device was called "Rocket" because of the buzz that can be heard at the beginning of the work. Such sounds become silent when the furnace heats up to the required temperature. The greenhouse is heated with a chimney located along the perimeter of the structure or along it.
- "Vologda." Solid fuel is placed in this unit every 8–10 hours. The furnace works by gas generation. Some models contain a coil for heating water. Chimneys are laid out through the ceiling or window. At the same time, the upper chimney must exceed the ridge by at least 0.3 m to enhance traction. To improve the heating process, the device must be mounted 0.3-0.6 m above the floor.
- Buleryan. This device is a barrel, which is located on its side. From it stick out in different directions of the pipe above and below. The lower pipes are needed to absorb cool air, and the upper pipes are needed to release a warm air stream. The basis of the work is gas generation: in the first internal compartment, firewood smolders, and in the second, the gas that is released completely burns out. There is a uniform warming up of the room. Efficiency is 72–75%. Firewood is thrown into the oven every 7–8 hours. Unfortunately, this version of the heating system does not have a regulator for temperature.
- Slobozhanka. Quite practical stove for heating the greenhouse on wood, hay and sawdust. Typically, the ignition system is located at the top of the device. There are 3 variations of this device for heating, which differ among themselves by the system of supply and movement of air flows.
- Butakova. This model resembles a buleryan furnace. It also operates on the principle of gas generation, but additionally has a convector that provides faster heating of the greenhouse. In the presence of a regulator that allows you to set the required temperature. At the bottom there is a drawer for removing soot. Temperature differences are regulated by the grate.
Now on sale there are various types of solid fuel boilers for long burning, which can be used to heat greenhouses. Such a furnace can be manufactured and equipped on their own.