Features raspberry varieties Primara
Early raspberries are especially popular because you really want to enjoy your favorite berry at the end of June. And if a variety is able to bear fruit twice a season, and at the same time has remarkable taste, then it is guaranteed to gardeners.
Primara is a raspberry variety bred in the Ukrainian nursery of Brusvyan, located in the Zhytomyr region. The author of the work is breeder Dmitriev V.I. The ancestors of the variety are Morning Dew and Diamond.
Did you know? For over 20 years now, Russia has been the world leader in raspberry cultivation (144,000 tons per year). This is followed by the United States, Serbia, Poland and Germany, Ukraine is also among the six world leaders in crop production (31,000 tons per year).
Characterization and description of the variety
Belongs to universal grades, Suitable for use as a dessert, as well as for processing. It features a small number of side shoots, a wonderful taste and large berries, which is clearly visible in the photo.
It is characterized by a very early ripening period, the first fruiting (Primara is a repairing variety that can bring two crops per season) can be obtained already in mid-June. The first crop, naturally, is larger than the second, which should be expected in August.
When describing berries, first of all, it should be said about their impressive size - berries can reach a length of more than 3 cm, having almost the same diameter and weight up to 15 g. The fruits have a dark red, almost ruby color and a shiny surface. Berries of the correct conical shape, dense, juicy, well stored and transported. Another nice feature of the Mayor is the springless bushes. Productivity - up to 5 kg from one bush.
The bushes of Primara reach a height of 1.2 m, and they grow quite normally without tying. Bushes grow straight up, abundantly covered with large emerald leaves. In the second season, one bush will give birth to 2-3 substitution shoots. If autumn pruning is performed, the second fruiting begins earlier - in late July or early August. According to reviews by gardeners, amateurs and specialists, the taste is estimated at 4-4.5 points out of 5.
- Primara has impressive positive characteristics:
- excellent taste;
- brings two crops per season;
- differs in high frost resistance;
- good immunity to fungal diseases.
Did you know? Raspberry is an excellent honey plant: from 1 ha of forest raspberries, bees collect up to 70 kg of honey, from 1 ha of garden crops - up to 50 kg of sweet product.
- It should be said about some of the disadvantages:
- in the southern regions, fruits can be baked in the open sun;
- after ripening, the berries do not last long on the bushes, crumble rather quickly;
- in summer, in ordinary weather, the taste is harmonious balanced, and in autumn, with the onset of cold weather, sourness is noticeably felt;
- in hot weather, smaller fruits will be born;
- in early May, the variety may be subject to freezing frost;
- high-quality seedlings are not cheap;
- the roots of young seedlings are quite fragile.
The root system develops at a depth of about 25-30 cm, while the subordinate roots can grow up to a distance of two meters from the main. New shoots develop from buds located in the underground part of the seedling in the second season of its life.
Thus, in a bunch, the shoots grow up to four seasons, after which they form their own separate root system and begin to grow their own shoots.
For normal growth and development of the variety, it should be planted in 10 shoots per 1 m².The distance between raspberry plantings and the rest of the plot should be at least 2 m, the distance between adjacent rows - 0.7 m. If you plan to grow Primaru for sale, the row spacing should be approximately 2 m.
Primaru is planted in spring and autumn. For the autumn planting, the first half of autumn is chosen, in spring, the culture is planted in April. In addition, there is now a tendency to plant raspberries in the summer. In this case, due to the abundance of heat, it is developing intensively and is able to bring a crop in the first season.
The mayor is planted by two methods: bush and tape. For a bush planting method, the approximate size of the pit is 0.4 × 0.4 × 0.4 m. For tape planting, a ditch 0.5 m deep is dug, bushes are planted every meter.
Selection of seedlings and location
Raspberries need a sufficient amount of sunlight, so it is advisable to choose a place for its landing on a hill or hill. A good option is a gentle slope descending in a southerly direction. In addition, there should not be tall trees or buildings nearby that can create a shadow.Choosing a place with good lighting is extremely important, since even quite moderate shading, covering raspberries daily for 2-3 hours, may well significantly reduce yield. This circumstance should especially be taken into account when growing crops in the northern regions. However, even in these latitudes (and even more so in the south), not far from Primara, it is desirable to plant sunflower or corn. There will be few shadows from these crops, but they are able to protect raspberry plantings from sunburn.
We should not forget about the rules of crop rotation - raspberries grow well where they grew before:
- onion and garlic;
The culture also takes root well after calendula with marigolds.
But after the following cultures, Primara does not grow in the best way:
Seedlings are best purchased in a specialized nursery. You should not do this in the market, seduced by a lower price. High-quality planting material for remont raspberries cannot be cheap, but the proposal to buy seedlings inexpensively should alert you. Most likely, the result of such a purchase will be the acquisition of low-quality seedlings, or planting material of a completely different variety.
When buying, pay attention to the following points:
The kidneys. At the base of the seedling should be at least three buds, because it is they who will shoot, which will be the main crop next season.
Root system. The roots should be healthy, well branched, not have signs of dryness and wilting. Carefully touch the spine: it must be sufficiently elastic, resilient, moisture should be felt in it and no slightest signs of brittleness should be absent. In addition, the roots should not be in a film or plastic bag - such packaging leads to excessive waterlogging and the charm of the roots. Wrap the roots better with a moistened cloth (a piece of terry towel, burlap, etc.).
Stem. It is desirable that the seedling has at least one formed stem - this is a sign that the seedling is alive and healthy, ready for active growth.
Watering and feeding
Raspberry is a thermophilic plant, Primara is no exception. If you are counting on a good harvest, you need to water the plant regularly and abundantly. The volume of liquid should be such as to sufficiently moisten the root system of the plant. The plant especially needs watering at such stages: flowering and winter preparation. The more raspberries are saturated with moisture in autumn, the better it will winter.
Did you know? All parts of the raspberry bush, except for the roots, are used to treat cough, flu, and colds. Moreover, the healing properties of the plant are recognized not only by folk, but also by official medicine.
For irrigation it is more advisable to use water poured into open containers and left for several days in the sun. If your site is dominated by sandy and rough soils, watering should be done more often.Before planting raspberries, prepare the soil. Herbicides are used for these purposes: they must destroy the remains of the roots of perennial weeds.
In addition, for each square meter of landing area, make the following composition:
- humus or mullein - 2 buckets;
- superphosphate - 1 glass;
- complex mineral fertilizers - 1 cup.
This composition of fertilizers is quite enough for the first 5 seasons after planting raspberries. If you plan to plant Primara in 1-1.5 years, you can first plant mustard, lupine or rye on the future site - these siderates will perfectly prepare the soil for planting.
Important! You should not feed raspberries with nitrogen in the summer. Nitrogen fertilizers contribute to the growth of foliage, and this is not only not necessary at this stage, but can also harm.
- Early spring - nitrogen fertilizing.
- Flowering, the formation of ovaries and fruits are nitrogen-mineral complexes in which the nitrogen content is minimal (an excess of the mineral stimulates the growth of green mass instead of the formation of fruits).
- Fruiting - potassium and magnesium (a sufficient amount of potassium has a positive effect on the density and durability of berries).
Pest and Disease Control
The most dangerous pests for Raspberry Primar:
Stem gall midge. Especially common in the middle lane and in the south. Small black fly (up to 2 mm). The larvae are black with orange. They cause damage to the stems of the plant, as can be seen from the characteristic swelling at the base (called galls) and in the middle part of the stem. Larvae (2-10 pcs.) Winter in these galls, in the spring they turn into adults. If no action is taken, the pest can destroy up to 2/3 of the landings.
To destroy the pest, drugs such as Alatar, Fufanon, Actellik are used when the insect flies or lays eggs. As soon as the first flowers appear on the shoots of last season, foliar treatment (spraying) of the bushes is carried out. If raspberries are planted too thickly, first it must be thinned, leaving 10-12 of the strongest shoots per 1 m².
Raspberry nutcracker. Pest larvae harm stems by eating them. Unlike the gall midge, the swelling on the stems from this parasite is much larger (up to 10 cm). They destroy the pest with the same preparations as the gall midge. For more effective pest control, pesticides should be alternated to avoid developing drug tolerance in pests.
Shoot aphid. Perhaps the most common pest of raspberries. Especially susceptible to insect invasion, plantings located in the shade. Numerous pest colonies settle at the ends of shoots and inflorescences, as a result of which foliage curls, growth slows down, shoots become crooked, internodes are short. Underdeveloped flowers form on the shoots, which most often dry out. Aphid extermination measures are carried out before flowering, using one of the following preparations: Inta-Vir, Iskra-M, Actellik.
Raspberry (strawberry) weevil. A sign of the appearance of the pest are pedicels without buds. There are buds that look like cropped, they are kept only on a film. The weevil looks like a dark bug, 2-3 mm in length. The insect hibernates under the foliage of raspberries and strawberries.
The destruction of the weevil should begin no later than 5-7 days before flowering. To control pests, the same pesticides are used as against gall midges, aphids, and walnuts. If the invasion of the pest is massive, spraying is carried out after harvesting.
Raspberry beetle. A very dangerous pest, a favorable environment for which are neglected garden plots. The chitinous surface of the pest is covered with a red or grayish pile, the length of the insect does not exceed 4 mm. Winter pests spend in the upper layer of soil.
With the advent of spring, after the earth warms up to +12 ... + 14 ° C, the pest crawls to the surface, looks for additional food, after which it begins to engage in reproduction.They fight with raspberry beetle in the same preparations and in the same way as with weevil.
Ticks The spider mite infects Primara in the second half of summer, in hot weather. To combat pest, garden colloidal sulfur, Tiowit Jet, is used.
Among the most common diseases characteristic of Primara, it is necessary to distinguish the following:
Purple spotting. Mushroom disease, a sign of which is elongated pinkish spots on the stems. It affects the stems, buds, twigs, petioles. The spots darken and increase in size, the bark of the stems crack and peel. The shoots break, dry, the kidneys stop developing.
The peak of the disease falls at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn. At this time, the spores of the causative agent of the disease (didimela) are ripening. The risk of the disease is especially high in wet weather, dense plantings, the presence of stem gall midge and insufficient sunlight. Old growth is more susceptible to disease than young.
Powdery Mildew The tips of the shoots are covered with a whitish coating, which later affects the leaf plate on both sides. If the humidity is high, plaque becomes more noticeable. Dense plantings located in humid places with insufficient sunlight are especially susceptible to the disease.
The disease manifests itself in June and early July, during the ripening of the fruit. The growth of tips of shoots and foliage is suppressed. The leaves die off, the fruits become smaller, acquire an unpleasant bluish tint and the smell of mushrooms.
Anthracnose. Mushroom disease, most often occurs with excessive watering. Small spots appear on the foliage, shoots and petioles, which then increase to 3 mm, the middle of the speck is painted in gray. Parts of the leaf plate affected by the disease fall out, the spots increase in size and merge into one large spot.
Stems are covered with ulcers, crack and die. Berries affected by anthracnose stop growing and dry. The pathogen overwinters in shoots and foliage, is transferred from new diseased plants to new plantings. Anthracnose develops in the spring, after the appearance of foliage. The further course of the disease depends on the weather: with high humidity, the disease is especially strong and active.
Rust. First, the top of the leaf plate is covered with rust-colored tuberosity, after which the disease can go to the back of the leaves and stem. Where the disease is particularly active, the stem takes on a flat shape. Affected areas become brown, covered with whitish sores. If you do not counteract rust, this can lead to the death of plantings.
Gray rot. The risk of developing the disease is especially high in wet weather. The fruits are covered with a grayish coating - a fungus, which is the causative agent of the disease.
In order for Primara not to get sick, the following preventive measures must be observed:
- raspberries should be loosened very carefully, and the soil should be dug shallow, so as not to damage the roots;
- raspberries should be grown no longer than 7 years in one place, Primaru should be re-grown in the same place, should be no earlier than the fourth season;
- plant only healthy seedlings on the treated fertilized soil;
- after harvesting, remove all deflated and damaged stems, destroying them outside the garden;
- Do not forget to feed (fertilizers increase the immunity of plants) and thin out plantings.
Did you know? It is believed that the ancient Romans were the first to meet raspberries, it happened in the III century. BC e. on Crete. The berry came to Russia in the 17th century, a century later than to Europe.
Raspberry is a berry shrub with a two-year life cycle. In the third season, the fruits become small.
In order to avoid this, shoots aged 2 years should be cut off, observing some rules:
- There are two types of pruning of all repairing varieties, including Primar: for one crop (carried out in the same way as for ordinary varieties) and for two fruiting per season (cut the entire biennial shoots in order to get a crop from annual shoots in autumn) .
- Some stalks are cut by 12-15 cm, others by 25-30 cm, some are cut to half of the bush. Some gardeners leave stems with a 1/4 shoot. As a result of this method of pruning, the fruiting period is prolonged: the stems with the minimum pruning are the first to produce the crop, then they are cut by 25-30 cm, etc. It should be noted that the most pruned stems bring fewer fruits, but they will be larger.
- Spring pruning is a continuation and addition of the autumn procedure. Perform spring pruning after the snow has melted. Remove frozen, diseased and damaged stems. Cut as close to the ground as possible, no need to leave a stump.
- The tops of the stems are cut to the first healthy buds (this is about 15-20 cm from the tip of the stem). If you don’t trim the ends of the stems, the fruits will be small.
- The shoot remaining after trimming should be 1.2-1.4 m long. No more than 10 shoots should be left on one bush. In addition, do not forget to thin out the aisles - they remove all young growth. For one season, several prunings are performed, since one seedling per season can produce several new stems.
- In the summer, as soon as sick, damaged and dried stems are found, they should be cut off immediately - the procedure should not be postponed until the fall, since such stems can become a source of disease.
Preparing for the winter
Important! For mulching raspberries, only rotted sawdust and manure should be used. You can not mulch raspberries with its own leaves, as they can become a source of disease.
- Damaged, broken, dry, weak and diseased stems are cut to the very root.
- Remove the offspring of a two-year-old shoot.
- Overgrown bushes are thinned out, leaving no more than 10 of the strongest stems on each square meter.
- The bushes are neatly dug (spud), while removing weeds.
- The whole trimmed green mass is carried outside the garden and burned.
- They carry out the pre-winter watering and top dressing of the Primara, the stems are treated with iron sulfate.
- Leaves from the stems are removed - this measure prevents burning of the kidneys.
- The stems of each bush, freed from foliage, are collected together, bent to the ground and fixed (tied). If your Primara grows tied up, the bushes are fixed on the trellises. If there is no trellis, set pegs to which the bushes are tied. This procedure will prevent freezing of the bushes.
- If there is severe winter frost in your latitudes, the landings are covered with the first snowfall.
- The tied bushes are mulched with a layer of straw (you can mix straw, rotted sawdust, mullein and peat) with a thickness of 10-15 cm. Mulch will not only not allow raspberries to freeze in winter, but also protect it from rodents.
Harvesting and storage
Some simple rules will help you harvest and keep the crop:
- the fruits are removed from the stem with part of the stem. Then the peduncle is separated with two fingers;
- when collecting, you should touch the surface of the berry as little as possible - the skin is very delicate and its slightest damage leads to an early damage to the fruit. It is correct to collect the berry in this way: hold the stem with your left hand (if you are left-handed - do everything the same way, only with your other hand), keep your right open palm under the berries. With the thumb and forefinger of your right hand, fix the peduncle and pinch it. Put the fruits on the palm of your hand in a collecting container. At the same time in the palm should be no more than 6 berries;
- Put the berries in a container very carefully. The stem length should be 7-10 mm. If damaged fruits are found, or those without a peduncle, do not put them together with the bulk of the crop;
- as a container for collecting, bodybuilders or baskets designed for 2-3 kg are perfect. If during storage and transportation, the bodies will be placed in several tiers, they should not be filled to the top. In addition, it is unacceptable to pour raspberries from one container to another;
- For a short storage of berries, a cellar, a cellar or a refrigerator are suitable. If you plan to keep the crop as long as possible, do not do without freezing. For this, dry raspberries are laid out on a pallet in one layer and placed in a freezing chamber, after which the fruits can be placed in plastic bags or containers.
Primara is a variety that successfully satisfies many of the requirements and wishes of gardeners. In addition to good taste and large fruits, the variety has a wonderful feature - to bring two harvests of wonderful berries per season.
My Primara has berries like those in the photo. The leaf is very original, the berry is beautiful, the taste is pleasant, sweet, though due to the heat it is relatively small, but not small (I think that the size would be large if there were watering) the shoots are low, but upright, do not require garter. But I personally like Pocus and Regiment more. I do not think to delete.