Raspberry Firebird: characteristics, features of cultivation
Raspberry is the most popular garden berry plant, and crop cultivation is practiced in many summer cottages and in private households. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, dozens of varieties with good yields and tasty berries are known. In this article we will talk about the repair raspberry Firebird, recommendations will be given on planting, care and propagation of the culture, as well as a description of the variety.
Remontant raspberry The firebird belongs to the authorship of the famous breeder I. Kazakov When developing the variety, the scientist worked in tandem with breeder S. Evdokimenko. The variety is listed in the State Register of Russia, intended for cultivation in a temperate climate. Mostly Firebird is grown by gardeners in the south and in the middle zone of Russia, in Ukraine and Belarus.
Description and characteristic
The plant has a repair ability and can bear fruit twice a year. Raspberries form the first crop in early July, the number of berries during the first fruiting is very small. The main (late) harvest of Firebird berries ripens in August.
Bushes of the Firebird are tall, slightly sprawling, the length of an individual stem reaches 200 cm. A feature of this productive variety is that each stem is covered with soft, but not very sharp thorns. The leaves of the variety are green, slightly corrugated, the diameter of the leaf plate is 8–12 cm.
The berries are large, conical, well removed from the bush, which helps to preserve the integrity of the fruit during harvesting. The fruits are painted dark red in color, have a very large size, up to 15–20 mm long, the weight of an individual berry can vary from 4 to 6 g. The berries are juicy, soft, have a sweet and sour taste.
Advantages and disadvantages
Varietal berry plants have significant advantages in comparison with wild-growing representatives of the culture - they have better taste and larger fruits. But also each grade has its own drawbacks.
- Benefits of Raspberry Firebird:
- large berries;
- harmonious taste of fruits;
- not sharp thorns;
- high productivity;
- dry separation of berries from drupes.
- Disadvantages of Raspberry Firebird:
- the need for garter tall stems;
- poor transportability of soft, juicy fruits;
- poor winter hardiness.
Important! All chemical processing of raspberry should be carried out by the gardener in compliance with the proportions specified in the instructions for the preparations. When working with chemicals, a person must be protected with protective clothing and a mask that protects the respiratory system.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Firebird is intended for cultivation in regions with a warm temperate climate, as it has poor winter hardiness. In the northern regions, a variety can only be grown under dense winter shelter or in greenhouses.
Like any other varietal raspberries, the Firebird variety has a branched root system that extends under the soil at a depth of 10-12 cm. Shallow rooting of the roots contributes to their rapid drying, so that the raspberries bear fruit, the soil under the bushes must be kept moist. For every adult bush when irrigated, at least a bucket of water is consumed. The frequency of summer watering is once a week. If you mulch the soil in the raspberry, you can water the berry much less often (once or twice a month). You can mulch the soil with straw, mowed grass, sawdust.
Video: Raspberry varieties Firebird
Productivity and fruiting
The productivity of an adult healthy raspberry bush of the Firebird variety for the season is 1.8–2 kg. Experienced gardeners, wanting to increase the yield of this variety, put the plants in a one-time fruiting mode. For this the aerial part of the bush after August fruiting is mown near the ground. Since the trimmed repairing raspberries will bear fruit on the young shoots of the next year, the fruiting will be simultaneous (in August), but plentiful.
Raspberries can be planted in ditches or deep planting pits filled with fertile soil and humus. Plants can be arranged in single rows or planting tapes. Sometimes gardeners choose a square-nesting method or group planting.
When using the tape method, bushes are planted in one or more rows at a distance of 1.5 to 2 m between them. This is the minimum range to prevent the transmission of infection between the tapes and to provide the necessary ventilation and illumination of plants. When planting between individual seedlings, a gap of at least 40-50 cm is left so that the raspberries are not too thickened, and each plant can get enough sunlight and space for growth.
When using the square-nesting method, the prepared area of the raspberry is divided into squares with a side of approximately 1.5 m. The soil in the marked areas of the future raspberry is pre-treated and fertilized. A distance of 1.5 m is also observed between the squares. Seedlings are planted in the corners of each berry plot, in subsequent years the bushes grow and fill the area of raspberry.
Another method involves planting raspberries in groups of two or three seedlings, observing the distance between the groups from 65 to 70 cm. If desired, such plantings can be placed much wider from each other or even planted in single groups.
In climatic zones that differ from each other, raspberries are planted at different times, this can be both autumn and spring planting. Also, the type of seedlings affects the timing of planting. Plants dug from the school have open roots, so they need to be planted in the ground as early as possible.. Raspberries growing in pots, or seedlings from pallets (with a closed root system) are ready to be planted in the garden when it is convenient for the gardener, without regard to the time of year or weather.
The open root system of seedlings affects the timing of their rooting. Typically, such plants adapt slowly and do not have time to start growing before the onset of the cold season, so they are not recommended to be planted in the ground later than mid-October.
Plants whose root system is in the ground (potted or ZKS - closed root system) practically do not receive damage when transplanted into the beds, which explains their quick adaptation and the resumption of growth. But they must also have time before the onset of cold weather to grow powerful roots that cross the borders of the small soil coma with which they were planted.
Video: Features of planting and care of remont raspberries
Choosing the right place
Seedlings should be planted in a place where the sun could illuminate them throughout the day. The culture does not tolerate wet, cold soils, so it is so important that the sun warms the soil in the raspberry.
In a region with a temperate climate, the southern wall of any building: a barn, a house or a fence can be considered the most suitable place for planting. But the location of the beds should be such that the shadow from the structure does not fall on the bushes. The presence of buildings protecting the raspberry from cold winds will allow the formation of the most favorable microclimate for the culture.
It is undesirable to plant young seedlings in a place where raspberries were already located a few years before, as this threatens young plants with diseases and pests of the culture that have accumulated in this place for many years
Selection and preparation of planting material
Acquired raspberry seedlings should have stems that do not have mechanical damage or signs of damage by fungal diseases.Also, young bushes should have an extensive and healthy root system.
Important! Planting material for laying raspberries is recommended to be purchased from a trusted manufacturer in berry nurseries. Such seedlings usually correspond to the variety and are not infected by pests and crop diseases.
For a young raspberry to bear fruit for many years, the gardener must adhere to the rules for planting seedlings when planting a berry. Planting pits for raspberries are pulled out deep enough - with a width of 30 to 50 cm and a width of at least 30 cm. Their bottom is filled with organic matter - humus or well-rotten manure. 100-150 g of superphosphate and 0.5 l of sifted wood ash are added there. Fertilizers are mixed with fertile garden soil.
Despite the wide and deep landing pits, there is no need to deepen raspberry seedlings when planting. The root neck of the plant should remain open, but all buds located on the roots should be well covered with soil, the top layer of which is carefully compacted after planting.
Immediately after planting, the shoots of the bush should be cut to a height of 30 cm from the ground, then well water and mulch the soil around the raspberry, with a diameter of up to 50 cm
In order for the raspberry plantation to constantly and abundantly bear fruit, the soil in the raspberry should be kept clean from weeds. To do this, carry out regular weeding or fill the space between the bushes with biological mulch (sawdust, hay, straw). Mulching will help solve the problem of weediness and prevent moisture from evaporating from the soil.
It is necessary to carry out regular watering and treatment of plants from diseases and crop pests. For this, the aboveground part of the raspberry is treated with chemical preparations, and also insecticides (simultaneously with irrigation) are applied to the soil. For irrigation it is convenient to use the drip system, which is laid out between two longitudinal rows of culture.
Harvesting and storage
Raspberries are harvested more than once during the ripening of the crop, as the berries are sprinkled in several stages. Ripe are considered fruits that have acquired the color and size characteristic of the variety. It is recommended to collect raspberries in a small container, the volume of which does not exceed 0.5 liters. In such a container, all berries during storage and transportation will remain intact and not wrinkled. The fruits of this culture quickly deteriorate, so they have a very short shelf life. Within two days after harvesting from the bush, the berries will begin to deteriorate.
Raspberry berries are suitable for making jam, jams, jams and other preparations. They can also be frozen for the winter, while the fruits do not lose their palatability.
In an area where winters are cold and frosty, the Firebird must be prepared for sub-zero temperatures so that the culture survives the cold period without loss. When grown with a wintering aerial part, the branches of the raspberry branch bend to the ground and are fixed using large metal studs. The ground in raspberries is also insulated, since the roots of this culture lie shallow.
An additional layer of mulch is laid on top of the soil, it can be straw, hay or spruce spruce branches. Some time later, in winter, after heavy snowfall, branches pinned to the ground are insulated with an additional layer of snow. Warming with raspberries is removed in the spring, at the end of March, before the kidneys swell.
In the south, raspberries are not warmed for the winter, since severe frosts are absent in the region, and there are no heavy snowfalls that threaten breakdowns of the aerial part of the berry.
Did you know? There are dozens of raspberry varieties that have absolutely no thorns and have a smooth, even stem (Worktop, Pride of Russia, Beauty of Russia, Maroseyka, Taganka). Such varieties are the result of painstaking breeding work, and, as a rule, differ in very large berries.
There are several ways to propagate varietal raspberries without losing valuable parental qualities. Not all methods are equivalent, but the gardener can choose any method that suits him best. Reproduction by root segments is considered the most productive in the final output of seedlings.Reproduction by maternal roots:
- To do this, in the autumn, the roots of the mother bushes are dug out of the ground. The most suitable time for such work is the beginning of October or the end of September. The aerial part of the bush extracted from the soil is cut off, and the roots are laid in a box with a suitable moisture- and breathable substrate. The thickness of the roots should be at least 3 mm, and their length about 20 cm.
- Coarse river sand or sphagnum moss can be used as a substrate. A layer of substrate is laid in a shallow wooden box, moistened with a spray bottle, and then the raspberry roots are laid on it with an even layer. On top of the roots, another layer of substrate is laid, which is well moistened.
- The mother liquor with roots is transferred to the basement or other room, where during the winter a low plus temperature will be observed (+8 ... + 13 ° C). If the gardener assumes the mass reproduction of this variety of raspberries and there are many roots, wooden boxes-mother liquors can be installed on top of each other in stacks of 5 pcs.
- Approximately 40–45 days before the expected date of planting raspberry seedlings in the schoolhouse, wooden boxes of mother liquors are brought into a warm (+20 ... + 23 ° C), well-lit room. After this, the substrate in which the roots are located should be well moistened with warm water. Boxes with roots are arranged in one layer.
- Heat and light contribute to the awakening of the kidneys, in abundance located on the roots of raspberries. They swell and begin to grow in the substrate. After a while, the seedlings break through to the surface of the substrate. Every 2-3 days, the substrate needs abundant moisture. From each uterine plant in several stages you can get up to 200 copies of varietal plants. Cuttings are disconnected from the maternal rhizome as soon as they acquire a height of 10-15 cm and they will have their own root system.
- The school, where the cuttings will be transplanted from the uterine boxes, is located in the place where the penumbra is constantly located during daylight hours. Such a location will not allow fragile cuttings to suffer from sunlight. After spring planting in the school, the grown raspberry bushes are transplanted to a permanent place in the fall or spring of next year. Such material is considered virus-free and does not carry diseases of the parent plant.
Also, raspberry bushes can be propagated by “nettles”. Such reproduction begins in the spring, usually at the end of May, when root underground buds wake up around old raspberry bushes and form young bushes above the ground. These shrubs are called “nettles” because of the outward resemblance to young nettle shrubs. This seedling has a lush root system and is usually absolutely healthy, that is, it does not have the viral and bacterial diseases inherent in the old parent bush.
Propagation by "nettle":
- When the aboveground part of the “nettle” reaches 10–15 cm in height, the gardener, using a knife with a long blade, cuts the plant from the ground, trying to capture the underground part as deep as possible. The bottom of the "nettle" will have a white color.
- Seedlings cut from the ground are planted in rows with a distance of 10-15 cm between plants.
- Seedlings are looked after throughout the summer, watered and cultivated from weeds.
- At the end of September, the most powerful plants are ready for planting in raspberries. Weak seedlings with a thin above-ground stem are left to grow in the nursery until spring. By this time it will get stronger, and will be suitable for landing in a permanent place.
The most traditional way to propagate raspberries is to dig up young plants right in the old raspberry and plant them in a new place.Gardeners do not recommend this method of propagation, since over several years of vegetation, viral and bacterial diseases accumulate in the parent raspberry, and the berry is usually populated by several generations of various crop pests. When planting a young bush, all the existing problems of the old berry go into the new raspberry.
Diseases and Pests
Raspberries, like any other plant crop, are periodically exposed to pests or outbreaks of various diseases.
Did you know? Raspberries are used to make all kinds of alcoholic beverages: liquors, wines, tinctures, and even beer.
The main diseases of culture
Raspberry mosaic - A viral disease manifested in May. Small, about 2 mm, yellowish or yellow-brown spots with irregular contours appear on the leaves. Spots spread quickly enough and occupy the entire surface of the sheet. Changing the color of the leaves is accompanied by severe deformation of the leaf plates. The affected bush does not develop normally, as a result of which the quality of the berries deteriorates. Bushes no longer grow, they can be seen from afar due to the specific color of the leaves. The virus is transmitted with planting material, aphids or other insects.
Prevention and control measures:
- Monitoring raspberry plantations to identify infected bushes.
- Removing diseased plants from raspberries and destroying with fire.
- The use of insecticides to control the aphid population.
Bacterial cancer - a bacterial disease, due to which growths develop on the roots and at the base of the stem, first whitish, soft, pea-sized, gradually growing and becoming brown and lignified. The bacterium can survive in the soil for many years and spreads through water, dust, garden tools.
The optimal conditions for the emergence and development of growths are temperature +22 ... + 30 ° C and humidity 80%. This disease is promoted by moist and dense soils, an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, nematodes, etc. Full-fledged lighting has an inhibitory effect on the development of the disease.
Prevention and control measures:
- Placing nurseries in sunny places.
- Use healthy planting material.
- Disinfection of tools and equipment.
- Removing affected bushes with roots and applying soil treatment at the place of removal with copper sulfate.
- Treatment of the roots of planting material in a 1% solution of copper sulfate or with the drug "Topaz 100 EC 0.025%".
- Soil cultivation during planting with copper-based preparations.
Anthracnose - a fungal disease, manifested on the shoots in the form of small oval red-violet spots. The disease develops, the spots become gray and whitish, the tissues rot. Small purple spots appear on the leaves, which gradually turn gray, the fruits are deformed and rot. Fungal spores enter plants from the soil surface, where they winter on plant debris. In case of severe infection, the plant dies.
Prevention and control measures:
- Burning diseased plants and plant debris from an infected plantation.
- Using certified healthy planting material.
- Conducting chemical treatments with one of the drugs: Bravo, Topaz, Topsin, Bumper.
The main pests of raspberries
Spider mite (Tetranichus urticae, Panonichus ulmi) - Insects are very small spiders that damage many plant species. The first attacks of the spider mite can begin in early spring, but significant damage to the berry berry occurs in the summer when heat sets in. Ticks can grow 7–8 generations per year. Pests are usually located on the underside of the leaves, where they feed by sucking out the cell sap.
Important! Chemical processing of the berry should not be carried out if less than two weeks are left before the crop ripens.This is due to the fact that the waiting period will be insufficient, and part of the harmful chemicals will be present in the fruit.
The first symptoms of a spider mite attack are visible in the upper part of the leaves, where small discolored spots appear, which after some time turn yellow. After intensive feeding of the pest, the damage points on the leaves are combined, as a result of which the leaf blades become whitish, and then brown. In addition to leaves, spider mites can also eat berries.
Chemical treatment of plantings with one of the preparations: Nissorum 10 WP, Envidor 240 SC, Milbeknock, Vertimec 1.8 EC.
Aphids (Aphis gossypii) - These are polyphages that migrate from one plant to another, causing damage to the berry and other plant species. Aphids form colonies on the underside of leaves. Pest affected leaves become corrugated, curled, yellow and dry. Mostly aphids are located on young peaks and can attack flowers. Aphid plants stop growing, turn yellow and become susceptible to fungal diseases. The presence of aphids is accompanied by a cover of leaves with their sweet excrement, forming the so-called "honey dew", which contributes to the development of mycelium.
Conducting chemical treatments with one of the drugs: Mospilan, Aktara, Decis Mega, Fastak Active, Confidor Energy.
Raspberry bug (Byturus tomentosus) - an adult insect has an elongated body, dark gray-brown in color. The larva has a chestnut or yellowish color with a brown spot on each segment. Insects breed at the rate of one generation per year. Larvae hibernate in the surface soil layer under the berry. Damage to raspberries is caused by both adult insects and larvae. Adults appear in the spring and feed on the colors of the culture. Females lay eggs on flowers, as a result of which the larvae after hatching feed on mating fruits. Affected berries are immature and stiff.
- It is necessary to dig the soil around the bushes in early spring in order to extract the larvae to the surface.
- Manually collect raspberry bugs on stems for further destruction.
- Collect and destroy the affected fruits.
- Carry out chemical treatments of plantings, one before the buds of the kidneys and the other after flowering. For chemical treatments use any of the drugs: Mospilan, Decis Mega, Fury, Fastakt Asset, Affirm.
Raspberry sawfly - in adult insects, a long black body with two long black antennae. The insect breeds at a speed of one generation in two years, young growth feeds on wood inside shoots. Adult beetles appear in June and feed on young tops of bushes. Females place eggs in the soft tissue of young leaves near the apex. Above and below the egg, the female makes a series of holes that make the top of the bush dry. After hatching, the larva creates a gallery in the shoot stem that descends to the ground. Affected branches are weak, break easily and dry next year.
- Removal and destruction of affected tops.
- Processing plantings during the growing season with one of the preparations: Karate Zeon, Fastak Active, Laser 240 SK, Calypso 480 SK, Fury.
Having planted several dozen raspberry bushes of the Firebird variety on their site, thanks to the plant's maintenance, the gardener will be able to receive delicious berries throughout the summer. Young raspberry will bear fruit without reducing yield for 5–7 years.
Network user reviews
The Firebird’s berry is really sweet, it doesn’t rot at all, despite the rains, the “favorite” candidate upsets only one circumstance that the berries will go under the snow