How to prepare repair raspberries for winter
In many gardens, the most traditional and favorite berry is raspberry. Repairing varieties of this culture are not considered rare, but gardeners often encounter problems growing and preparing such varieties for winter. This material will introduce the activities that need to be carried out in order to properly prepare the plants for wintering and to ensure the harvest in the next season.
What is repair raspberry
Remontance is the ability of a plant to bloom and bear fruit several times during the growing season or year.Ordinary raspberries are planted in the fall, it overwinters, and the next year it gives young shoots, which only in the second season begin to bear fruit. Repairing raspberries produce berries already in the first season, and fruiting is observed twice a season - in summer and autumn.
The opportunity to get two crops from one shoot is very beneficial in those regions where early frosts occur, because of which late raspberry berries do not ripen and even go green under the snow.
Berries of repair crops can be picked twice a season - in early summer on last year's shoots, and in September or later - at the tops of young growths of the current year. But such double fruiting weakens raspberries and significantly postpones the ripening of the autumn harvest (sometimes even until mid-autumn). Therefore, most often, repairing raspberries are grown in an annual culture bearing fruit on the growth of the current year.
At the beginning of the growing season, young, rapidly and intensively growing shoots appear from the roots. Fruit branches develop on them along the entire height of the stem, ovaries bloom quickly and form, and by the end of summer a full-bodied plentiful crop ripens.
- Repaired raspberries have several advantages over summer varieties:
- Since in the fall all bushes are cut to the root, caring for raspberries is simplified. No need to tilt the bushes to the ground and cover them for the winter, as is done with other varieties.
- The repaired raspberries do not need garters for props and trellises, since the shoots grow no more than 1.5 m, quickly become woody and provide natural resistance to lodging even under the weight of berries.
- Repairing varieties are frost-resistant and are not affected by pests, since the phases of development of harmful insects (raspberry beetle and raspberry-strawberry weevil) and the phases of raspberry vegetation do not coincide in time. This can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals for processing raspberry.
- Together with the stems that are cut, and the scraps are removed from the beds in the fall, both pathogenic microorganisms and wintering parasites are removed.
Step-by-step instructions for preparing for winter
Caring for remont raspberries, although it has its own peculiarities, is usually no more difficult than for ordinary varieties. In autumn, it is necessary to carry out a number of activities in order to create good conditions for raspberry wintering and to ensure a rich harvest for next year.
Did you know? In Christian art, raspberries are a symbol of kindness.
Video: Raspberry repair. Features of planting and care
If you cut off only a third of the prolific growth, then next season branches will form on it, on which the crop will ripen in early summer, and by autumn the berries will ripen on the growths of the current year. But in this case, the total yield from double fruiting will be much smaller, stretched over time, and the berries will be small.According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, it is not possible to achieve the maximum yield either from the first summer ripening or from the autumn, and the repairing variety is grown as usual. Therefore, it is better to use repair raspberries only in order to get a full-fledged autumn harvest of large berries at annual growths.
Young plantings of remont raspberries do not cut completely under the root, leave 30 cm of the shoot so that the plants can use all the nutrients from the stem and leaves to strengthen the root system. When new spring shoots appear, these old stems are cut.
When forming a bush, it is necessary to control the number of emerging roots and leave only 6-8 shoots on one root. A distance of 60–80 cm between the bushes is necessary for good lighting and airing the plantings, since the ripening of berries in the repairing varieties takes place on the lower branches. Thin out raspberries, if necessary, leaving about 10 bushes per 1 meter - raspberries do not tolerate thickening. To do this, dig up the soil with root growths with a knife or a shovel to a depth of 6-8 cm.
Take out of the garden and burn all the vegetable debris and mulch that the beds were covered in in the summer to prevent the spread of harmful lesions. But healthy raspberry branches can be dried and used to make tea, because both raspberry leaves and branches have useful properties.
The right tool
To carry out autumn work in the raspberry, you will need the following tools and accessories:
- secateurs or manual scissors for small landings;
- a scythe with a circular circle with solid teeth, or a brush cutter for large plantations;
- garden gloves and long-sleeved clothing for protection against spikes.
Watering in the fall before leaving the plant for winter rest is very important, since in the fall raspberries form the growth points of the shoots in the roots, therefore, the deeper the soil is moistened, the better the plant will winter. In conditions of drought, in early November, watering is carried out under the root to moisten the soil layer to a depth of 20-30 cm, since raspberry roots are in the surface soil layer to a depth of 35 cm.
Important! Mulching the soil under raspberry bushes reduces the need for moisture during the growing season by 3-4 times.
Drip irrigation is one of the best methods for watering raspberries:
- the method is more economical in the use of water than irrigation in ditches or sprinkling;
- the water that goes to the roots is already preheated (raspberries should not be watered with cold water);
- the soil is moistened evenly.
The soil under the bushes should be carefully dug to a depth of 7-10 cm. Every 2 years, when digging, add decomposed compost and wood or straw ash.
Fertilizers containing nitrogen are not used in the winter, as they can provoke rapid growth of the shoots and weaken the root system, which should be strengthened before the onset of cold weather, which excludes frost damage.
If it is necessary to fully fertilize the plantation, then a groove should be laid in the rows, potassium and phosphate fertilizers should be added to the furrow and sprinkled with soil. The rate of administration is 60 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt for each bush. These nutrients will facilitate the formation of fruit buds and increase yield in the coming season.
The beds for the winter must be mulched. The old mulch, which was on the beds throughout the summer, needs to be raked and burned in order to destroy the pests that live in it.
Mulch helps fight weeds, retain moisture in the soil, and protect plant roots from frost. The mulching material may be straw, chopped cobs and stalks of corn, sawdust, wood chips, dry grass, fallen leaves, needles.
Important! The thickness of the heat-insulating layer of mulch depends on the material - 7–10 cm for sawdust, 15–20 cm for straw.
Sprinkle overripe manure on top of the grass mulch, and lay a 10-15 cm layer of straw on top. In the spring, straw should be scooped up to make it easier for shoots to break through. And after the shoots of the new season appear with straw, you can again mulch the beds. Young plantings with low shoots mulch and throw snow on them after a snowfall.
Disease and Pest Treatment
After the last harvest, preventive treatment of the bushes against diseases and pests is carried out. From weevil, raspberry beetle, gall midges, ticks, the bushes are sprayed with insecticide solutions (Actellik, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, etc.), spending 1 bush 1.5 liters of solution. From fungal infections, raspberries are treated with Bordeaux liquid (1-3%) or a solution of copper chloride (0.5%).
In the fight against gray rot, the rows should be optimally thinned out, and the bushes covered with ashes. Plants infected with viral diseases (mosaic, infectious chlorosis, curls, dwarfism) cannot be treated. They must be destroyed - excavated and completely burned.
The soil along the beds and under the bushes can be treated with copper sulfate and colloidal sulfur. This operation protects plants in the winter from diseases, fungi and mold.
Important! One of the best ways to prevent disease is to use disease-resistant varieties and purchase plants in special nurseries.
As a preventive measure, agricultural practices and the rules for growing crops should be steadily and timely observed in order to minimize the risk of pests and diseases in the season.
Weaving and tying
Since the remont raspberries are cut to the root for the winter, then procedures such as weaving and tying, it does not require.
Shelter for the winter
You do not have to worry about additional shelter of the bush of remont raspberry, as they are cut to the root, and the layer of mulch serves as sufficient protection against frost even in the absence of snow cover.
What will happen if you do not do the preparation procedure
Lack of watering during dry winter periods increases the risk of frost damage to the root system. It is advisable to change the landing site every 7 years.
The absence of constant pruning and thinning of raspberry bushes will turn the plantation into wild thickets, where it will be difficult to provide care and harvest, and thickening can lead to the spread of diseases and pests, lower quality and quantity of berries due to lack of light and air.
Did you know? In the Philippines, it is believed that a raspberry branch protects the house from evil spirits, and in medieval Germany, raspberry branches were tied to a horse to calm her.
The combination of both summer and repair varieties is a great way to maximize the ripening of these delicious berries. We hope that these tips will be useful and will help you in preparing the raspberry for winter.