Raspberry Cumberland: black and yellow, its beneficial properties
Raspberry Cumberland resembles from North America, where it was bred back in 1890. Some call it ezhimalina. It has a black color, but do not confuse it with a blackberry. Due to random mutations, a yellow variety of this variety was obtained.
Description of Raspberry Cumberland
This raspberry forms powerful shrubs with thick branches 1.5–3 m long. They are covered with large, tenacious spines that are bent by a hook. As they grow, shoots begin to slope to the ground and spread along it. Young shoots first have a green-blue color and are covered with a wax coating that can be wiped off with a finger. Then they become red-violet in color, and before frosts they turn stiff and brown. Bushes do not give root shoots. Light green leaves are medium or large in size and 5-12 cm long.The lower part of the leaf plate is covered with whitish hairs and spikes, and the upper one is pubescent. In May-June (depending on the region), abundant flowering occurs with small white flowers collected in a brush on the tops and side shoots of two-year-old branches. In each brush, up to 15–20 berries ripening in July are tied. Berries ripen unevenly. At first they are green, then they turn red and, in a state of ripeness, acquire a violet-black color with brilliance. They are small in size (1.5–2.5 cm) and weighing 2-3 g, rounded in shape.
They are easy to separate from the pedicel, unlike blackberries. The seeds are larger than ordinary raspberries, and hard. The berries have excellent taste - sweetness with a weak acidity, notes of raspberries and blackberries. They tolerate transportation well and have a universal purpose. They can be frozen, used for jam, eat fresh, dried, used to make juice and drinks, used as a dye.The plant has a high yield - 4-6 kg of berries are harvested from each bush, and when reaching the age of three and with optimal cultivation farming techniques, it is possible to collect up to 7-14 kg of berries. Shrubs of this variety bear fruit well until the age of 14 years. The variety is winter-hardy and withstands frosts down to -35 ° C, which allows it to be grown without removing it from the trellis. It is little affected by pests and diseases. There is a yellow fruit variety.
Useful properties of American varieties
Each of the varieties of Cumberland is useful in its own way.
It has a higher density of berries and a refreshing sweet taste. Although it does not have anthocyanins staining the fruits in dark colors, it contains other flavonoids, which also have antitumor properties. Yellow raspberries are more suitable for allergy sufferers. For the same reason, it can be eaten during lactation, babies begin to introduce raspberries of this variety.
Did you know? The first in Russia a garden with raspberries was planted by order of Yuri Dolgoruky. It was so big that the bears came into it to feast on the sweet berry.
It is useful for pregnant women, as it contains ascorbic acid, a group of vitamins B, including vitamin B9 (folic acid), carotenoids. This berry has a positive effect on the composition of the blood, reduces the amount of cholesterol, improves digestion and metabolism.
Black raspberry is a leader in the content of useful trace elements among other types of raspberries and blackberries. The Cumberland variety with black-purple berries contains anthocyanins with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It also helps to eliminate cholesterol, lower blood pressure, improves blood composition and metabolic processes, removes radionuclides from the body.Aronia varieties increase immunity and protect against aging at the cellular level.
Planting and caring for black and yellow raspberries
Planting and caring for raspberries Cumberland has its own characteristics.
Did you know? American scientists (Ohio University) during the experiment gave mice a carcinogen that causes cancer of the esophagus and frozen black raspberry extract. Of the 2,200 damaged genes, 460 have recovered. This confirmed the ability of raspberries to inhibit the development of cancer.
It is best to plant Kumberlnd raspberries in early spring before the start of active vegetation and budding. It is permissible to plant bushes of this variety in summer and autumn, but in this case it is necessary to organize good care. In summer, only bushes with a closed root system are planted. In hot weather, young seedlings will need to be steadily moistened to prevent the root system from drying out and covered from the scorching sun. During the autumn planting, it will be necessary to give time before the frost for rooting and cover the plantings for the winter. In autumn, it is recommended to plant raspberries only in the southern regions.
Choosing the right place
In the northern regions, for planting Raspberry Cumberland, you need to choose a sunny spot, and for the southern regions partial shade is acceptable. Full shadow should be avoided. Precipitation should not stagnate at the landing site, and groundwater should be no closer than 1.5 m from the soil surface.
Important! Cumberland raspberries should not be planted after other varieties of raspberries or blackberries, or next to them. Bad predecessors are also solanaceous crops, strawberries, and apple trees.
This raspberry prefers nutritious loam and sandy loam with a slightly acid reaction. Cumberland can be planted as a fence or let into the arch.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The purchase of seedlings should be carried out in specialized nurseries or from sellers with a good reputation. The seedling should be inspected - it must correspond to the description of the variety. Cumberland should have a wax coating on the shoot and thorns.It is necessary to opt for specimens with well-developed roots, without damage and signs of disease. They should not be dry, but moistened. A seedling with a rooted root system will tolerate drought normally. With fibrous roots, it will be necessary to provide constant hydration until a good rooting occurs.
The process of planting Cumberland raspberry seedlings occurs in the following sequence:
- Prepare a landing site. To do this, they dig it up and make compost (2 buckets per 1 m²).
- They dig holes with parameters of 0.4 × 0.4 m. The interval between the bushes is maintained at 0.6–0.7 m, and between rows 2 m.
- The excavated soil is mixed with humus in a ratio of 1 to 1, and wood ash (1 l) is added. A mound at the bottom of the fossa is made from part of this soil mixture.
- Drive in stakes for garter planting material. The length of the peg should be about 2.5–2.8 m above ground level. Then a wire is stretched between them, forming trellises for garter shoots. The distance between the supports should be about 0.5 m.
- Gently pour 10 liters of water around the mound into the pit so as not to damage it. Then the seedling is placed in a hole, spreading the roots, and fall asleep with the rest of the nutrient soil mixture.
- The earth around the seedling is a little tamped and a hole is made for watering. Then moisturize again by pouring 3 liters of water.
- After planting, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the bushes with a layer of 4-6 cm. Peat, manure, straw, compost, hay are good as mulch.
Did you know? Raspberry has a beneficial effect on the skin and is part of cosmetics. It has a good effect on skin health in both external and internal consumption.
Aftercare for raspberries
To get a good harvest, it is necessary to organize proper care of the seedlings:
- Be sure to water during the appearance of the ovary and the formation of berries. Humidification should be moderate, but the soil should not dry out.Raspberry drip irrigation.
- Feed nutrients after falling of color, as well as during fruiting. For this, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used. Well-rotted bird droppings or manure, superphosphate, potassium sulfate are well suited.
- Branches before wintering must be removed from the trellis and bend to the ground with brackets. It is not necessary to insulate from above. You can throw more on the bushes during the snowfall.
- Carry out the necessary pruning and garter.
- Once every 2 years when digging the soil under the bushes add rotted organic matter.
An important point in growing Cumberland raspberries is pruning. This process is necessary to prevent the extension of the stems, which takes away the strength of the plant crop for good fruiting.
Important! In order not to shake your hands with spikes when cutting, they need to be protected with tight gauntlets.
Gardeners are recommended to perform two main prunings:
- For the first time, branches of 2 m or more are cut. They remove the crown of up to 1.7 m. This causes the growth of side shoots. This procedure is best done in the spring before the swelling of the kidneys.
- The second pruning is carried out in the fall, removing shoots of 2 years of age, as well as those that have been fertilized. Annual stems are cut 0.5 m from the ground. This process involves removing unwanted shoots. Leave should be about 10 strong branches, and the rest removed.
Variety propagation methods
Raspberries of this variety can be propagated in several ways:
- Root cuttings. Typically, such cuttings are harvested during the elimination of planting. To do this, rhizomes are dug up at least 2 mm thick and 12-15 cm long. They are tied into a bundle and placed for wintering in a groove, covered with foliage. You can store such planting material in the cellar, sprinkled with sand. The temperature regime for storage should be from 0 to + 4 ° C. In spring, the roots are planted to a depth of 10 cm. For insulation from above, the landing is covered with a film. Be sure to moisten the soil. When sprouts appear, the film is removed.
- Green cuttings. To do this, cut the stem and cut it into cuttings 6-8 cm long. Then they are planted in a greenhouse. Pre-prepared soil for planting. It should consist of fertile soil and river sand, which is poured on top with a layer of 8-10 cm. After the cuttings are cut, they are planted in the prepared soil to a depth of 4-5 cm with an interval of 10-12 cm. After 30 days, the rooting material and its can be transplanted to a permanent place. The transplant must be done with an earthen lump.
- Dividing the bush. When choosing this method, you need to dig a bush and divide it into parts that must be immediately planted separately as independent units. This procedure is recommended to be carried out in the autumn before wintering or in the early spring before pouring of kidneys.
- Rooting tops. Such reproduction is rarely used. To carry out this procedure, a layer of humus or peat is poured near the bush to a height of 12-15 cm. The bush itself is carefully bent to the ground and sprinkled with earth. After a while, roots begin to grow from the crown. Such acceleration is best done at the end of August.
- Horizontal shoots. This is the most popular method. In spring, the shoots are shortened by 12–20 cm from above, which contributes to the growth of the bush. Over the summer period, young shoots are formed, which must be pressed to the ground, and covered with soil from above, leaving several buds on the surface. In spring, from these shoots new bushes are obtained, which are transplanted to a permanent place for further cultivation.
- Seed propagation. For this purpose, it is necessary to collect seeds and immediately plant them in prepared nutrient and loose soil. The seed material is placed shallow - by 1.5–2 cm, and then sprinkled a little with soil, sawdust and peat. This is a longer method, so it is rarely used.
Video: raspberry propagation by root cuttings
Diseases and Pests
Inadequate care for the crop, as well as adverse weather conditions can trigger the appearance of some diseases and pests. So, rainy weather contributes to the appearance of fungal diseases, and dry, hot weather in the absence of watering causes the appearance of some pests.
Did you know? Raspberries are very good for men. It contains substances necessary for the production of testosterone and sperm. In addition, its consumption protects sperm from oxidative stress.
Methods of struggle
Before choosing a method of dealing with a problem that has arisen, it is important to notice and identify it in a timely manner. If this is not done, then the raspberry yield can significantly decrease.
The most common such diseases are raspberry cumberland:
- Curly hair. It appears in the form of twisting leaves, which gradually darken and die. The berries become acidic. There are no effective remedies for this disease, therefore, at the first signs of kinkiness, the bush must be removed from the site and burned so as not to infect neighboring plants.
- Anthracnose. In this case, gray specks with dark maroon edges appear on the leaves. Leaves begin to curl and dry. The berries darken and have irregular shapes. To eliminate the problem carry out processing Bordeaux mixture.
Planting with raspberries can be invaded by such pests: aphids, spider mites, gall midges, raspberry beetles, weevils, bud moths, stem flies. To combat them, chemical preparations such as Actellik, Metaphos, and Karbofos are used.
An important point in getting a good crop of Cumberland raspberries is the prevention of diseases and pests.
Important! Raspberries are not recommended to be grown for more than 7 years on the same site, and seedlings can be re-planted on it only after 3 years.
Professional gardeners recommend the following preventive measures:
- follow cultivation agricultural techniques;
- Do not loosen deep planting, so as not to damage the roots located close to ground level;
- you need to buy only healthy planting material;
- disinfect seedlings by immersing the root system of seedlings in a solution of 1% copper sulfate;
- to plant on a well-prepared area with nutritious soil;
- it is imperative to carry out, after the full harvest, the removal of the prolific and severely affected shoots in such a way that no stumps remain;
- remove affected bushes or stems and dispose of them (burn);
- weed weed;
- carry out preventive treatments against fungal diseases with Bordeaux fluid, Hom, Oxychom in spring and autumn, as well as in rainy weather;
- make sure that there is no thickening of landings;
- to prevent the appearance of insect pests, which are carriers of many diseases, dig aisle in the fall, as well as carry out treatment with preparations such as "Karbofos";
- in the spring, nitrogen fertilizers must be applied to the soil;
- observe crop rotation.
Cumberland Black Raspberries are significantly ahead of regular raspberries in yield. Ripens in July. Drought resistant. Unpretentious in leaving. Unlike red-fruited raspberries, it is not affected by disease. It is decorative all year round - in winter the shoots have a bluish-blue color. It does not let in wild growth, but if it needs to be propagated, it is easily rooted by the tips of the shoots. In appearance it resembles a blackberry, and to taste - mulberry and blackberry. The berries are small, strong, do not crumble.They lie well, do not crumple, and do not flow. In addition, the Cumberland black raspberries are an ideal plant for barbed hedges.