Raspberry Brusvyana: description, features of cultivation
The ancient Slavic word “bruise”, meaning crimson, dark red, fits perfectly with the raspberry variety of Brusvyan, which is why it is so named. In addition to a beautiful appearance, the berries of this raspberry variety are distinguished by worthy gastronomic qualities. Moreover, the fruits from the bushes of Brusvyan can be removed twice a season. Read more about the variety of remont raspberries in the article below.
Early remontant raspberry varieties Brusvyana
Ukrainian breeder V. Dmitriev at the end of the last century crossed the Polish raspberry Porana dew with a raspberry variety bred by I. Kozakov. For 15 years, V. Dmitriev brought the hybrid to perfection and as a result created a wonderful repairing variety, which received official recognition in 2008, being included in the State Register of Ukraine. Brusvyana quickly gained popularity in Russia, Belarus and Poland.
Did you know? Scientists strongly disagree with people calling raspberry fruits berries. In fact, from the point of view of botany, raspberry fruit is a multi-stalk, consisting of many small fruits containing their bones.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening dates, productivity
The raspberry variety in question is characterized by such features:
- remontannost, allowing you to harvest twice a season - in mid-June and again in the fall until the frosts;
- a tree-like bush reaching a height of 1.6–1.8 m, with powerful (up to 2.5 cm across) erect shoots;
- small spikes of brown color;
- large wrinkled foliage radically green;
- a long growing season, as a result of which the leaves remain on the bushes in green until late autumn;
- a large number of growing shoots of substitution, which allows the variety to easily reproduce;
- juicy crimson color of cone-shaped fruits;
- fleshy and juicy pulp;
- small seeds;
- sweet taste of berries with a slight acidity;
- bright raspberry aroma of fruits;
- a solid mass of berries, reaching 10-12 g;
- the ability of ripened fruits not to crumble from the bushes;
- good transportability of berries;
- high productivity, reaching 4 kg from 1 bush.
Video: Raspberry Brusvyana
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- In addition to the advantages mentioned above, the raspberry variety of Brusvyan is also different:
- the ability of thick branches of raspberry bushes to withstand the severity of numerous fruits without bending or breaking;
- the great responsiveness of the variety to the correct agricultural practices, so that you can adjust the yield in the direction of its increase;
- heat resistance of the bushes, allowing the berries to maintain condition even at high temperatures;
- frost resistance, which allows plants to tolerate low temperatures up to –30 ° С without shelter;
- innate immunity to the most common raspberry diseases.
- Non-critical deficiencies of the Brusvyana variety include:
- a drop in the sugar content of berries and an increase in their acid during rainy and cool summers;
- drying of leaves with a deficit of moisture in the soil;
- rotting of the root system with an excess of moisture in the soil;
- dull berries and a slight whitish coating on them, which not everyone likes.
With all the similarities of the agrotechnical methods of growing Brusvyana with the cultivation of other raspberry varieties, there are features.
The productivity, winter hardiness, and resistance to diseases and pests depend on how well a site is chosen for growing this raspberry variety.The place where it is supposed to grow raspberry bushes should be sunny and protected from strong winds.
Did you know? Although raspberry stalks cannot live for more than 2 years, being replaced by new ones, the root system of the bush can exist up to 10 years.
The soil should be light, loose, with a sufficient presence of humus. In case of increased acidity of the soil, it is deoxidized by adding lime, wood ash or dolomite flour to it at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 m².
- It is most preferable to plant raspberry bushes in areas previously occupied:
Good and neutral raspberry neighbors.
- Undesirable precursors for raspberries are:
- raspberries planted earlier than 5 years later.
Important! The processes of decay, which affects the root system of raspberries of the Brusvyana variety under excessive humidity, predetermines the requirement that groundwater in the area does not rise closer to the surface of the earth closer than 0.8 m.
Landing and care
It is better to plant repair raspberries either in the spring in April or in the fall from mid-September to the end of October, depending on the climatic conditions of a particular region. As a rule, a later planting is fraught with danger for the plant not to take root until stable frosts. Spring planting is preferable for regions with more severe climatic conditions.
In autumn, raspberries are usually planted in areas with warm and long autumn. Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted throughout the entire warm period. For planting, seedlings with a well-developed root system are selected. The diameter of the stems should not be less than the thickness of the pencil, and their length should be at least 20 cm.
The process of planting seedlings in the ground is as follows:
- At the selected site, dig holes with a depth of 40 cm and a diameter of 30 cm and the corresponding size of the trench.
- Since the described variety is distinguished by a large branching of bushes, the distance between seedlings should be maintained up to 1 m, and the distance between rows should be 2 m.
- Pits or trenches are enriched with 2 buckets of compost or humus, 5 tbsp. l drug "Kemira-Universal" and the upper part of the selected soil. All this is mixed up. As a result, mounds should form in the pits, allowing the root necks of the planted plants to be located at ground level after the root system has been instilled.
- The straightened roots of the seedlings are placed on the knolls and covered with the remnants of the selected soil.
- After easy tamping, seedlings with root necks located at the ground level are watered with a bucket of water each.
- The moist soil around the plants is then mulched using crushed peat, dry humus or compost.
In the process of subsequent care of the plant when watering the bushes of the remont raspberry Brusvyana, it is necessary to maintain a clear water balance. On the one hand, the moisture content of a variety requires constant soil moisture. And on the other hand, excessive moisture in the root system quickly leads to rotting of the roots. As practice shows, drip irrigation, included for a couple of hours a day, is most preferable in this case.
Important! When planted in autumn, seedlings are cut flush to the ground a month after planting, and in spring, shoots are not cut at all.
Since repair raspberries manage to survive the development cycle within one season, for which ordinary raspberries need 2 years, it needs enhanced nutrition for full growth and fruiting.
To do this, during the first 3 seasons after landing, Brusvyanu is fed twice in each of them:
- Immediately after the snow melts, 1 tablespoon is added per 1 m². ammonium nitrate.
- With the onset of flowering and the third time in the fruit setting period, 1 cup of wood ash and 3 tbsp. ammonium nitrate is bred in a bucket of water.The mixture is fertilized with soil at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m².
After each irrigation or rain, the soil around the bushes must be loosened to prevent the formation of an earth crust, which prevents air exchange in the root system. It is useful to mulch the moist soil removed during the cultivation of weeds, which inhibits the evaporation of water.
Pest and Disease Control
As already noted, the raspberry variety Brusvyana is distinguished by innate immunity to most diseases characteristic of this culture.
However, violations of the rules of agricultural technology, leading to a weakening of the plant, can provoke such diseases:
- Anthracnose, creating on the leaf surfaces and on the shoots the formation of grayish spots with a red border, which leads to drying out of the foliage and withering of the tops of the shoots. As a treatment, they resort to circumcision of the affected parts of the plant and treatment of the remaining parts with “Fundazol”, “Topsin-M”, “Nitrofen” and colloidal sulfur before setting the berries.
- Gray rotcharacterized by the formation of gray fluffy plaque on the fruits. They fight it in the same way as with anthracnose.
- White or purple spotting, forming on the stems and foliage spots of white or purple with a dark border, which gradually lead to drying of the leaves. The methods of treatment are similar to those described above.
Among pests the most active against raspberries:
- Raspberry tick, manifested by the formation on the deciduous surfaces of oily greenish spots, which gradually leads to withering of the foliage. To control pests before flowering, plants are sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur, Arovertin, Akarin, Bitoxibacillin, Fitoverm. Folk remedies are also used in the form of an 8-hour infusion of chopped onions at the rate of 30 g per 1 liter of water or 2 garlic cloves infused for 5 days per 1 liter of water.
- Spider mitesucking juices from a plant and forming a web on it. They fight it the same way as with raspberry mite.
- Raspberry stem flywhose larvae eat the core of the stems. As a struggle, cut out the affected parts and stems and spray the bush before flowering with “Actellic.
Although Brusvyana is a tall tree-like bush with thick erect shoots that well support the weight of a ripening crop, many gardeners nevertheless use trellis to insure weather disasters and to facilitate plant care.
To do this, use poles dug into the ground to a depth of at least 0.7 m and a wire with a cross section of 4 mm stretched over them at 2 levels. Branches are tied to this wire with an interval of 0.2 m. The result is a standard plant with a crown, convenient for processing and for harvesting.
Forming a large number of substitution shoots, the raspberry variety of Brusvyana fully provides gardeners with planting material for subsequent propagation of the crop. To do this, one-year-old pencil-thick shoots and a well-developed root system are selected. This raspberry can also be propagated using root cuttings that are separated from the mother bush. Root offspring are placed in a mixture of peat and sand, where they are rooted and germinated. A year later, they are already suitable for planting in a permanent place.
Pruning and wintering
Of the 8 shoots of substitution, Brusvyany leaves in the spring 5 of the strongest shoots, and the rest are cut out. Autumn pruning of remont raspberries depends on the method of its subsequent cultivation. The nature of the autumn pruning of raspberries depends on the method of cultivation. During the 2-year-old cultivation, only shoots of the 2nd year of life, which have been thawed this year, are cut.
A similar cycle is used in southern regions with fairly warm winters. In regions with more severe winters, even good frost resistance of a variety cannot guarantee the survival of shoots, which Brusvyany have are thick and unsuitable for bending to the ground in order to shelter them from frost.In most areas, a 1-year cycle is practiced, in which all prolific branches are cut. The experience of professional gardeners and gardeners indicates that when growing Brusviana in this cycle, the best crop with higher quality fruits is formed on annual shoots.
In this case, it is not recommended to pinch the shoots of remont raspberries, as this leads to a deterioration in the quality of the fruits and a decrease in their size. Following the autumn pruning, the ground around the bushes must be mulched with a 10-centimeter layer of chopped peat, dry humus or compost. Together with snow, this will be a reliable shelter for the root system in winter, and after melting snow - a good top dressing.
Harvesting and transportation
Raspberries are picked early in the morning in dry weather. The presence of dew or raindrops on berries significantly reduces their shelf life. Although the ripened fruits hold well on the bushes and do not fall, during the harvest process they are easily separated from the receptacle. The berries are collected in small, well-ventilated containers, from which the berries should not then be transferred to other containers.
Judging by the descriptions of consumers, the dense fruits of Brusvian have good, as for raspberries, stamina and transportability. In the refrigerator, the berries successfully withstand a week's stay. And in dried, frozen or grated with sugar, they can be stored for up to a year.
The sort of repairing raspberry Brusvyana turned out to be so successful that even today, when breeders have bred a lot of new large-fruited varieties with enviable characteristics, he practically did not give up his positions to new-fashioned competitors. The conquered Log niche in the gardens of Eastern and Central Europe remains indestructible.
The lack of variety, which does not bear fruit along the entire length of the shoot, but sometimes grows up to 2.5 meters. A significant advantage over many other varieties is unpretentiousness and cultivation without a garter. In addition, the bush can be formed by pinching the shoot at the desired height, and then the side branches grow and bear fruit, like on a small tree. I form several at once in height. From meter and above. Other varieties can also be formed in this way, but they will not withstand the whole mass, and Brusvyana grows without problems. Only if you pinch the top, then in the bush you need to leave no more than two shoots, as there will be thickets.