Propagation of raspberries by seeds: features of germination when planting seedlings
There is a common belief that growing a raspberry bush from a seed is a troublesome business and is available only to experienced gardeners. In fact, everything is not so complicated. This method is very useful if you decide to grow a rare, expensive or scarce variety. You can independently control the quantity and quality of seedlings, plant seedlings at a convenient time. It is only necessary to observe some conditions and after a year you can enjoy a fragrant berry.
Is it possible to grow raspberries from seeds at home
Growing raspberries from seeds is not so difficult.
Raspberry seeds are white-yellow, small, oval-round and hard.
It is very important in this case:
- Use high-quality seeds that you can collect yourself or buy in specialized stores.
- Pick the right raspberry variety.
- Choose the right time to sow the seeds.
- Use a suitable substrate for germination.
- Perform a timely dive.
- Organize proper care during the growing period.
Almost any variety can be grown with seeds. Which of the variety to choose depends on the climatic conditions and personal preferences of the gardener.
The best varieties for germination
First you need to decide on the variety. Raspberries with large berries and varieties fruiting throughout the warm period are popular.
In hot climates, repair varieties feel good:
- Polka - medium-sized variety, characterized by high productivity (up to 4 kg of berries per bush per season). Fruits twice a year. Feature: berries can ripen even at very low temperatures (up to -2 ° C). The berries are dense, do not flow after freezing. The bush is not very prickly, it is resistant to fungal and viral infections. Disadvantages: it does not tolerate both low and very high temperatures.
- Hercules - unpretentious, tall, sprawling shrub, reaching 2 m. Fruits twice a year (in June and, starting in August, before the onset of frost). The mass of one berry reaches 6 g. During the season, you can collect up to 3 kg from the bush. Feature: pronounced acid.
- Zyugan - powerful erect shrubs without thorns, do not require garter. The berries are large (up to 12 g). Productivity - up to 9 kg per shrub. Fruits in July to the first frost. Berries are very well stored (up to a week in the refrigerator).
- Mayor - medium-sized shrub bearing fruit in June and from August to September. The berry is slightly sour, the average weight is 10 g. The bush does not have thorns, can withstand frosts down to -20 ° С.
For the northern regions, it is recommended to plant such varieties on the site as:
- Bryansk divo - high-yielding (up to 4 kg per season) very prickly shrub. Harvest can be harvested from August to the start of frost. It tolerates low temperatures.
- Caramel - erect bushes, give up to 5 kg of berries per season. Begin to bear fruit in the first year. The berries are dense and very sweet, reaching a weight of 12 g.
- Yellow giant - powerful sprawling bushes reaching 2 m in height. Yellow berries weighing up to 8 g, very sweet and fragrant. Harvested in August. Productivity - about 4 kg from one bush.
Such varieties differ in very good productivity: Bryansk divo, Patricia, Izobilnaya, Mirage, Red ruby, Gusar. Whatever variety you choose, if you follow the recommendations for preparing seeds, growing seedlings and caring for seedlings, you will get a wonderful harvest of fragrant berries.
How to collect seed material
If you plan to grow seedlings from your own harvested seeds, use some tricks of experienced gardeners. The optimal time for collecting seed is September. You need to choose intact, the largest and ripe berries, you can take overripe. Before harvesting, you should carefully examine the bush: it must be healthy.
The seed collection process is as follows:
- Peel berries from cuttings and debris.
- Wipe using a sieve with medium-sized cells.
- Cake with grains to fill with water. Remove all pop-up mass. It contains pulp and empty seeds unsuitable for sowing.
- Collect seeds remaining at the bottom, rinse well. Repeat washing 5 times.
- Pour the seeds with water and leave for 24 hours to swell.
Further actions should be aimed at creating conditions close to natural, under which raspberries propagate by seeds.
Stratification of seeds at home
An important condition for the successful germination of seeds is the correct stratification. It provides for the creation of optimal conditions for the preparation of the material: temperature and humidity, preventing germination.
If seeding is expected in the spring, the material must be placed in a cloth bag (you can use nylon or gauze), moisten it and place in the refrigerator. Before use, the seeds are sorted, make sure that they do not dry out. The optimum temperature for stratification is considered to be a range of +1 ... + 5 ° C.
Important! Despite the fact that raspberries are a moisture-loving crop, excessive watering of the bushes can cause their defeat by pathogenic microorganisms.
The advantage of pre-germination
With this method of growing raspberries, seeds can be sown without prior germination. But the chances of achieving a positive result increase if the seed is pre-prepared.
- The advantages of this method:
- The ability to immediately reject unsuitable seeds, use only high-quality material.
- Reducing the time of emergence of sprouts.
For successful germination and obtaining strong healthy plants, it is important to properly prepare the soil and pots (containers) for seedlings.
Preparing a container or pot
The container or pot for sowing should have a depth of not more than 15 cm. Most often they use special plastic pots for seedlings with holes to remove excess moisture. It is more convenient to plant seedlings grown in pots in the ground without damaging the delicate roots of plants.
Did you know? Raspberry contains in its composition a large amount of copper, which has a beneficial effect on the human nervous system, therefore this berry is an excellent antidepressant.
Raspberries require soil rich in nitrogen and potassium. For seedlings, they prepare soil consisting of garden soil, peat and sand, which are taken in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. Prepared grains are buried in pots or containers to a depth of 0.5-0.7 cm, lightly sprinkled with sand or a mixture of sand and humus.
For germination, an optimal place is a sunny place. In doing so, exposure to direct sunlight should be avoided. They negatively affect the delicate young leaves and dry the soil.
If you plan to plant seedlings in the spring, the seeds should be laid in the soil from the end of February to the beginning of March (the first 5-7 days of the month).
An important condition for successful cultivation is observing the irrigation regime and maintaining the optimum temperature. Depending on the drying rate of the soil, plants are watered every 3-5 days. Once every 10 days it is recommended to feed the sprouts with a urea solution.
After how many days shoots will appear, how they look
The first sprouts with leaves characteristic of the given culture, when all conditions are met, germinate in 20–25 days.Shoots can be obtained earlier by treating the seeds with a growth stimulator.
Spring sowing: pros and cons
Spring sowing has both its advantages and disadvantages.
- The pluses include:
- Thanks to germination, defective grains can be identified in a timely manner;
- growing seedlings in a greenhouse or at room conditions allows you to provide optimal temperature and humidity, give the sprouts proper care; seedlings can be planted after stable warm weather is established.
- Cons are:
- sprouts can suffer from a lack of sunlight, so additional lighting is required;
- attention must be paid to storing seeds and maintaining optimal temperature and humidity;
- transplantation must be carried out very carefully, as there is a risk of damage to the roots.
Video: propagation of remont raspberry seeds
Autumn sowing: pros and cons
Many gardeners prefer autumn sowing, although climatic conditions play a large role with this method.
- Advantages of autumn planting:
- stratification occurs naturally, and young plants are more persistent than those planted by seedlings;
- there is no need for transplantation, which means adaptation; there is no risk of root damage;
- no need to grow seedlings, store seeds.
- Cons of autumn planting:
- it is impossible to calculate how many seeds will produce full-fledged sprouts (part may die, be damaged by pests, etc.);
- there is always a threat of freezing of young plants during spring frosts.
Planting seedlings in a permanent place: technology
For planting young plants, it is important to choose the right site. It should be quite sunny and protected from the wind. Raspberries take root well in fertile soils with neutral acidity.
Important! To avoid infection of shrubs with weevil and gray rot, it is useful to mulch the soil around them with pine needles.
Preparation for landing
With the establishment of a positive temperature, the plants begin to harden little by little, taking them out of the house into the air: first for several hours, and then for the whole day. Seedlings are planted only when warm weather is established. The optimum air temperature during landing is +16 ... + 19 ° С.
The method of growing on trellises is very convenient due to the ability to concentrate a large number of varieties on a small cottage area and achieve high productivity. This method is especially convenient for growing tall bushes.
There are single-lane and two-lane trellises:
1. Single lane trellis. On such a trellis, the shoots of the plant are held on a stretched wire or rope. In this case, the garter is carried out in 4 ways: vertically, under a slope, in the form of a fan, freely. The disadvantage of single-lane trellis is the complexity of the garter process - each bush is fixed separately.
2.Two-way trellis have a variety of designs (T-shaped, V-shaped, Y-shaped, hipped). Unlike single-lane, this type allows you to plant plants so that they can be formed, to avoid thickening, shading of young shoots.
1 - T-shaped; 2 - Y-shaped; V-shaped.
Technology and landing patterns
Most often raspberries are planted in rows. But some gardeners prefer to plant with a square of 0.2 × 0.2 m. In order for the seedlings to take root well, and caring for it does not cause inconvenience, when landing it is necessary to adhere to simple rules:
- Dig holes, leaving a gap of 15 cm between them.
- Add fertilizer to each hole. It is better to use a mixture consisting of equal parts of ash and humus.
- Moisten the soil in pots or containers so that the soil is fixed around the roots and does not crumble.
- Take out the seedlings from the pots, trying to leave them with the maximum amount of soil in which they were grown.
- Place the plants in the center of the prepared holes, sprinkle with soil, ram and water.
- Sprinkle the soil around the holes with sawdust or mulch.
After transplanting, seedlings should be given enough attention, because the plants have a fragile root system and tender sprouts.
The complex of agricultural operations at the seedling growing stage includes:
- top dressing;
- tying up.
Every 5–7 days, weeding and loosening of the topsoil by 3-5 cm is carried out. This allows you to remove weeds and provide better access of oxygen to the root system of plants. Watering is carried out regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. For feeding apply a weak solution of urea.
Did you know? Collecting nectar from blooming raspberries, bees increase the yield of bushes by 60–100%.
Gardeners who have been cultivating this berry for a long time know many secrets due to which they harvest a rich harvest every year. Raspberry bushes need to be protected from damage, because often this is a factor in many diseases. Raspberries should grow in one place no longer than 7 years. It can be planted on the same site no earlier than 4 years later.
In order to prevent various infections, it is recommended to spray plants with Bordeaux liquid (1% solution) in wet rainy weather with a frequency of once every 2 weeks. The thickening of the site greatly reduces yield and leads to the fact that the bushes begin to dry, so it is recommended in such cases to thin out them a little.
Watering and fertilizer
Substances such as nitrogen, potassium, organic compounds and phosphorus have a great influence on crop productivity and health:
- Potassium is important for enhancing winter hardiness of plants and abundant fruiting.
- Nitrogen promotes growth.
- Phosphorus gives the shoots strength, they look healthier.
- Organics increase productivity.
Any top dressing should be applied after loosening and watering the plants.
Feed application scheme:
- Organic matter is introduced (urea, saltpeter can be used) under the bushes after the snow has melted. Concentration: per 1 m² - 15 g of saltpeter or 20 g of urea. You can sprinkle the soil under the bush with wood ash.
- After loosening the soil around the bush, organic substances are introduced, which can be used as compost or peat.
- May feeding includes the introduction of a mullein solution (in proportion to water 1: 1). Insist 7 days. The solution is diluted with water at the rate of: 1 liter of solution in 5 liters of water. Poured under the bushes.
- The laying of the ovary requires top-dressing with superphosphate to increase the plant's resistance to disease and increase productivity. 250 g of superphosphate and 100 g of urea are added to a bucket of water. Poured under the bushes.
Diseases and Pests
Raspberry is not a whimsical crop, but needs periodic protection from diseases and various pests. Processing will give the desired effect if carried out according to the scheme in compliance with the spraying schedule. The first treatment should be done in early spring at the beginning of the growing season, the second - during the formation of buds.
To prevent anthracnose and gray rot, the shrub and soil around it are treated with copper sulfate in a ratio of 50 g of substance per bucket of water (5 l). To combat powdery mildew and rust, you can use 1% Bordeaux, iron sulfate, and also drugs such as "Topaz" and "Nitrofen."
Important! During the flowering period, the treatment of raspberries with any drugs is completely excluded to avoid the death of pollinating insects.
The most common causes of raspberry infections are excessive watering and increased acidity of the soil. If infections occur, it is recommended to reduce the frequency of watering. Acidity can be reduced by adding wood ash, dolomite flour or slaked lime to the soil at the rate of 0.15 kg per 1 m².
The main pests of raspberry bushes are flying and crawling insects:
- Weevil. To protect plants, mustard is used, with a solution of which the bushes are sprayed several times. To prepare the solution, 10 g of dry powder is diluted in 10 l of water and insisted for 12 hours. Baking soda also helps, which is taken at the rate of 50 g per 10 liters of water.
- Raspberry beetle. You can get rid of the parasite by spraying the bushes with “Agravertin” in two steps. If budding has already occurred, it is recommended to use tansy infusion. To prepare the product, 350 g of dried tansy must be filled with 5 l of water, boil at low boil for half an hour. Insist the prepared broth for 24 hours, strain and dilute 5 liters of water.
- Stem gall midge. In early spring, the soil is cultivated by loosening 10 cm and spraying with drugs such as Fufanon or Karbofos.
- Aphid. Until the moment of budding, it is recommended to use "Karbofos". You can replace the "Actellik".
- Stem fly. To prevent its occurrence, bushes are treated immediately after the snow has fallen and in early May. They use Karbofos, Actellik, Agravertin, Fitoverm.
- Spider mite. Shrubs are treated in the evening. Use "Karbofos", colloidal sulfur, "Phosphamide", "Metaphos".
Raspberry is one of the most common berries, characterized by unpretentiousness and high productivity. Over many years of cultivation, methods of combating diseases and pests, breeding methods have been constantly improved. It can be propagated as offspring, cuttings, dividing the bush, and seeds. The most time-consuming, but also interesting way is to grow seedlings from seeds.
Having its drawbacks, however, it allows you to get the required number of strong plants that can be planted in the ground at the most favorable time. Especially this method will be useful to those gardeners who “hunt” for rare and expensive varieties.