Raspberry varieties Arbat: selection history, characteristics, agricultural technology
Sweet raspberries are a favorite treat of many children and adults, so they are often grown in small and large summer cottages. One of its best varieties, which combines excellent yield, excellent commodity characteristics of berries and a strong immunity to diseases, is the Arbat variety. The article provides a detailed description of this variety of raspberries, lists its advantages and disadvantages, and also considers the main rules for planting and caring for them.
History of breeding of a repairing variety
The specified raspberry variety was obtained in 1988 in Moscow (Russia). The professor of the All-Russian Selection and Technology Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (VSTISP) V.V. Kichina worked on the creation of a new type of repair shrub.
He conducted experiments on the crossing of two Scottish hybrids No821081 × 7518E6 in order to obtain a new large-fruited raspberry variety that could differ from existing types of culture in early ripening of berries and high productivity. Initially, the plant obtained as a result of selection was assigned the number K92, and in 1996 the variety was named Arbat.
Did you know? Blackberries and raspberries belong to two different types of berries - in raspberries, the inside is hollow, and the flesh of the blackberry does not contain voids.
Description and characteristics, taste
Before growing Arbat raspberries on their site, it is recommended to study the description of the variety and its general characteristics. This will help to properly plant the plants and provide them with the necessary care, as well as to predict the volume of the crop.
The description of the variety Arbat is presented below:
- The bush is spreading and tall - up to 2 m. It consists of strong annual and two year old shoots. The former are painted green and covered with a thin layer of wax, and the latter are brown.
- 7-12 substitution shoots are formed on the plant. There are no thorns on the bush.
- Fruit branches have an average length, and up to 17 flowers can form on each of them.
- The upper side of the medium-sized leaves of the plant is wrinkled, painted in bright green color, and the lower side has a whitish-green hue. On the edges of the sheet plate are small teeth.
- The variety is large-fruited. The berries have the shape of an elongated cone, and their length can reach 4 cm. The mass of each fruit is 5-12 g.
- Ripe fruits on the outside are covered with shiny skin, painted in dark red.
- The pulp of berries has a dense structure, contains small, barely noticeable seeds. Ripe raspberries are very juicy and sweet, but have almost no aroma.
- Subject to the recommendations for care, the bushes of the described variety show good resistance to diseases and pests.
Advantages and disadvantages
Experienced gardeners who cultivate raspberries Arbat on their plots for many years give extremely positive feedback about it.
- The main advantages of this variety are:
- high productivity and large-fruited;
- excellent appearance and taste of berries;
- annual and prolonged fruiting;
- lack of shedding raspberries as they ripen;
- good immunity to diseases and pests;
- lack of thorns on the branches;
- a small number of seeds in the pulp of the fruit;
- good winter hardiness of the bush;
- good keeping quality and transportability of the crop;
- universal use of fruits.
Important! When grown in the southern regions, a raspberry bush Arbat can bear 2 times per season, but the second crop is small and consists mainly of small berries.
When breeding this variety, breeders tried to get a plant devoid of flaws, so Raspberry Arbat has practically no negative qualities.
- The few cons of the variety are listed below:
- deterioration in the taste characteristics of fruits with insufficient watering;
- the need for shelter for the winter when grown in the northern regions;
- a small number of root offspring, which complicates the reproduction of the bush.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Raspberry Arbat is characterized by good winter hardiness and is able to withstand frosts down to –30 ° C without additional shelter. The variety can be grown in regions with different types of climate, but in areas with little snow or too harsh winters, the bush needs a protective cover.
The bush can survive a short-term drought, but in conditions of constant lack of moisture in the soil, the crop yield decreases, and the berries lose their sugar content, so it is recommended to irrigate raspberries regularly in the absence of rain. In a hot climate, raspberries retain their shape well, do not bake in the bright sun.
Fruiting and Yield
The variety in question belongs to large-fruited raspberries, and farmers grow it in order to obtain a large number of sweet berries ripening in the early medium.
The main characteristics of fruiting and yield of raspberry Arbat are presented below:
- fruiting is carried out annually on strong biennial shoots;
- the first crop ripens in early July, and the last portion of berries is harvested in August;
- raspberries do not crumble from the bush as they ripen;
- the fruits reach the maturity stage in portions, so the whole crop is harvested in 4-5 approaches;
- with standard care, about 5 kg of large berries are obtained from each bush;
- harvested crops can be consumed fresh or used to make compotes, juices and jams.
Important! With sufficient watering and regular application of organic fertilizers, the yield of Arbat raspberries is rapidly increasing and can reach 9 kg from a bush.
To successfully grow Arbat raspberries on your plot, you need to properly plant young bushes. This procedure is recommended to be carried out in a clearly defined time frame, choosing only absolutely healthy and strong seedlings for planting.
It is equally important to take care of choosing a suitable place in which all the necessary conditions for the successful growth and development of bushes are present. More about this, as well as about the algorithm for planting raspberries Arbat - later in the article.
Arbat variety can be planted both in autumn and spring. For regions with late and mild winters, it is preferable to choose the first option, since in this case by the next spring the bush will already be strong enough and will be able to bear fruit.
Spring planting of raspberries is recommended only for areas with very frosty winters, so that low temperatures do not destroy the bush planted in autumn. In spring, raspberries Arbat are planted on the site immediately after thawing the land, and in autumn - at least 1 month before frost at an air temperature of no more than + 10 ° С.
Choosing the right place
So that the raspberry seedlings of Arbat are safely rooted and annually pleased with a good harvest of fruits, you need to consider the needs of the bushes, choosing a plot for raspberries according to the following criteria:
- Good daylight - the sun's rays stimulate the growth of shoots, and also provide uniform ripening of berries and their sweet taste.
- Lack of drafts - in the cold wind, the immunity of the bushes is significantly reduced, and in winter the plants can freeze.
- Light soil with a high nutrient content - well passes oxygen and water to the roots, enriches plants with necessary elements.
- Deep groundwater - they should be no closer than 1.5 m from the surface, otherwise the raspberry roots will rot due to waterlogged soil.
- Lack of bad predecessors - the crop in question cannot be grown after potatoes, tomatoes or strawberries, as they have the same pests and similar diseases with raspberries.
Raspberries can be grown on one site for no more than 8-10 years. After this, the crop yield decreases, and the risk of plant infection by infections and pests increases.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When growing Arbat varieties, the quality of planting material is of great importance. Strong and healthy seedlings take root quickly and subsequently annually bring a generous harvest of raspberries, so when choosing young bushes for planting, you need to carefully evaluate their appearance.
The main recommendations for the purchase of high-quality planting material are listed below:
- it is best to buy raspberry seedlings in specialized stores and nurseries - in spontaneous markets and from unfamiliar sellers you can buy a low-quality bush that does not meet varietal characteristics;
- the plant should have a healthy appearance, without signs of damage by pests or diseases;
- the thickness of a strong seedling is at least 1 cm, and its surface should be smooth and even, without growths and cracks;
- the root system of a healthy bush consists of many developed roots with well-defined growth buds;
- the age of the selected specimen should be no more than 1 year - such seedlings quickly adapt to new conditions and take root well in the ground.
Did you know? Most raspberries are grown in Russia - more than 140,000 tons annually.
To increase the resistance of Raspberry Arbat to diseases and pests, as well as improve the survival of the seedling, conduct such preparatory activities:
- 24 hours before planting, the young bushes are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, adding to it the growth stimulator "Kornevin";
- if there are green leaves on the shoot, they are removed so that they do not draw moisture from the seedling;
- immediately before planting, the roots of the bush are immersed in a mushy mixture of clay, water and manure.
Large and sprawling bushes of raspberry Arbat need free space for growth, so it is not recommended to plant young plants too tightly. Experienced gardeners advise placing them in rows at a distance of at least 2.5 m from each other.
Between neighboring seedlings in the same row it is enough to leave 1–1.5 m of free space. Land on the selected site must be cleaned from vegetation in advance and dug up.
Landing pits are prepared 1 month before raspberries are planted, following these rules:
- the depth of the pit should be 30 cm, and the diameter should be about 45 cm;
- the soil obtained by digging in the recesses is mixed in equal proportions with humus, adding 150 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate to each bush;
- at the bottom of the recess lay a layer of drainage from large pieces of bark or broken brick;
- at the bottom of each pit, a small earthen mound is formed from the prepared nutritious soil mixture, watered with water.
Did you know? The name of raspberries in Latin sounds like "Rubus idaeus", which translates — "The red berry of Ida." The culture got its name from the Romans, who first discovered it on Mount Ida (Crete).
Prepared in this way, the recesses are covered and left in this form until the very landing.
A step-by-step algorithm for planting Arbat raspberry seedlings is presented below:
- Immerse the roots of a young shoot in the landing pit. The root neck should be 3-5 cm above the soil surface.
- Spread raspberry roots on a mound of fertile soil. Sprinkle them on top with loose earth.
- Carefully tamp the surface of the earth around the bush with your hands, forming the region of the trunk circle.
- Pour each seedling with water so that the soil on the beds is wet to a depth of at least 45 cm.
- When the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, sprinkle the tree trunk circle with sawdust or hay.
After planting and successfully rooting the Arbat raspberry bushes, they need to provide standard care.
In the process of growing this variety, it is enough to perform the following actions:
- immediately after planting, install along the row of bushes a trellis for garter shoots - for this, vertical supports up to 1.7 m high are dug into the ground, and horizontal rows of wire are pulled between them, placing them at a distance of 0.5 m from each other;
- carry out abundant watering of beds as the soil dries up - raspberry roots penetrate the ground by 0.3-0.5 m, so the soil at this depth should always be moderately moist;
Important! Raspberry Arbat is most in need of watering at the stages of flowering, the formation of ovaries and ripening of fruits. But you can not fill the bushes too much - this will lead to decay of the roots.
- perform surface loosening of the soil around the bushes after each irrigation - this helps to retain moisture in the earth longer, preventing stagnation around the stem, and also improves air circulation around the roots;
- annually remove damaged and frosty shoots of raspberries - the procedure is carried out in early spring before the onset of active sap flow;
- at the end of spring, trim extra shoots on the bush, leaving 10-15 main stems to provide good access of sunlight to the fruits and improve ventilation around the plant;
- in May feed raspberries with nitrogen fertilizers - you can use a liquid solution of mullein (0.5 kg of substance per 10 liters of water), spending for each running meter of a row of 5 liters of nutrient mixture;
- in July, plants are fed with liquid mineral fertilizers, adding to them 2 tbsp. l nitrophoski for each linear meter of the row - this contributes to the formation of a large number of large and sweet fruits;
- after harvest, add a nutrient solution of 2 tbsp. under the bushes potassium sulfate and 10 liters of water - for each meter of a row about 7 liters of liquid mixture will be required.
The berries of the Arbat variety ripen unevenly, so you need to harvest the fruits in several approaches. Raspberries are removed from the bush in the morning or evening in clear weather, folding in small dry containers with a thin layer.
For transportation and storage, whole fruits with an elastic surface are selected, and it is recommended to transport them over long distances only during the first two days after removal from the bush.
Fresh raspberries of the described variety can be kept in the refrigerator for several days. To extend the shelf life of fruits, they need to be washed only before direct use.
Despite good frost resistance, Arbat raspberries must be properly prepared for wintering, and in areas with severe frosts (from –30 ° C and below), a special shelter is built around the bush.
So that the Arbat bushes easily survived the winter, it is recommended to perform the following actions:
Important! During prolonged thaws in the winter, you can open the bushes briefly to prevent decay of the shoots.
Raspberry Arbat can be propagated independently, using an adult maternal bush for this. This procedure is carried out in early spring or autumn after harvesting ripe berries.
The main methods of propagation of plants of the described variety are presented below:
- Reproduction by root offspring. There are growth buds on the roots of Arbat raspberries, from which young shoots - root offspring grow in the spring. To eliminate the thickened plantings, this young shoot is usually removed, but if you leave some green shoots until the end of the growing season, they form their own root system. After this, the offspring are carefully separated from the parent plant and transplanted to a new place as an independent bush.
- Division of the bush. This method of propagation of raspberries Arbat is most often used and consists in dividing the mother plant into parts, each of which later becomes an independent bush. After the division procedure, each daughter plant should have at least 2-3 strong shoots and a developed root system. A new bush is planted in a new place, using the planting algorithm described above.
Diseases and Pests
Subject to all recommendations for the cultivation and care of raspberries, Arbat shows good resistance to diseases and pests. But if the farmer makes mistakes when growing crops, then the risk of planting infection increases.
Most often, bushes of this variety can suffer from such infections and insects:
- Gray Rot (Botritis). The disease has a fungal nature and can occur in raspberries with high humidity in combination with cool weather. Signs of infection are large rotting spots on the leaves of the bush, which eventually turn to shoots, ovaries and berries. The affected bush stops growing, the berries are covered with a fluffy gray coating and rot. To get rid of gray rot, you need to remove all parts of the plant affected by the fungus and treat the plantings with a solution of colloidal sulfur (100 g of substance per 10 liters of water) or fungicides (for example, “Tsinebom”).
- Spider mite. The pest infects the green mass of the bush, sucks the juices from the leaves. Signs of the appearance of a tick on raspberries are small through holes in the leaves and a thin layer of cobwebs on their underside. A massive invasion of these insects is observed during prolonged drought. To destroy insects, apply acaricides (for example, "Actellik").
- Raspberry beetle. The insect lives in the upper layers of the soil, and with the onset of spring it lays eggs inside the raspberry buds, damaging the inflorescences. Emerging caterpillars eat flowers from the inside, preventing the formation of ovaries. Raspberry beetle breeds well in conditions of high humidity and excessive thickening of plantings. “Karbofos” is used against the pest, irrigating the plantings with a liquid solution prepared according to the instructions.
To prevent infection of raspberries Arbat with diseases and pests, it is recommended to perform simple preventive actions:
- observe crop rotation;
- choose a sunny area with loose soil for planting;
- buy high-quality planting material;
- adhere to the rules of watering and fertilizing;
- regularly loosen the soil and weed weeds near the bushes;
- pruning shoots annually;
- clean the trunk circle of debris and plant debris.
Did you know? In 1893, purple raspberries were obtained in Geneva, obtained by crossing a red and black variety of berries.
Growing raspberries Arbat on your own site is quite simple. To do this, you need to choose a suitable place for the plants, properly plant the seedlings and provide them with easy care. Applying the recommendations listed in the article, you can get a generous harvest of delicious berries that can be used for a variety of purposes.