Raspberries varieties Caramel: selection history, characteristics, agricultural technology
One word “raspberries” evokes the sweet, aromatic associations associated with childhood. Especially when it comes to a variety with the equally sweet name Caramel. This variety is distinguished not only by its special name, but also by its excellent taste, and the rich vitamin composition of large berries, and ease of care.
History of breeding of a repairing variety
The originator of this mid-season raspberry variety is Russian breeders who have worked for 10 years to develop a repair raspberry variety that will delight gardeners and gardeners with their impressive size and quality of berries, as well as unpretentiousness and undemanding.
Did you know? The most useful in the world is black raspberry.
Description and characteristic
Caramel is a novelty among repair (those in which both annual and biennial shoots bear fruit 2-3 times a year) raspberry varieties.
Caramel variety can be found in the following description:
- the stems of the bushes have an average height, which does not exceed 1.5 m, the growth of the stems is even and uniform, which forms an upright bush;
- due to the density of shoots, there is no need to tie up the bush;
- the surface of the raspberry stalks is covered with small, non-solid needles, which does not cause the gardener any inconvenience in the care and harvest;
- the foliage of the variety has an oval shape, elongated from the edges and bordered by denticles;
- You can distinguish the young shoot from the old one by the green color of the stems and the wax coating on the first. With the onset of autumn, the shoots become purple;
- the fruits of the variety have a wide conical shape and a light red color, glossy. The weight of raspberries ranges from 3.8–8 g.
Advantages and disadvantages
Caramel has an impressive list of advantages and almost no shortcomings.
Did you know? According to legend, raspberry berries were white at first. But the nurse of little Zeus Ida wanted to feed the baby with sweet berries. Ida scratched her hands on the bush, and her blood stained the white berries a crimson color.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Despite its gentle name, Caramel is a frost-resistant raspberry variety, breeders did everything necessary to ensure that the second crop of the remont berry did not suffer even during the first autumn frosts, so the variety can be planted even in conditions with a harsh cold climate. But it is worth observing the rules of care and planting Caramel, because untimely and improper planting is fraught with the death of seedlings. But this will be discussed below.
As for drought tolerance, just this point can be attributed to the disadvantages of the variety: the variety has medium heat tolerance and drought tolerance. A long period of drought and high air temperature (above + 35 ° C) adversely affect the plants: the fruits are baked, and the shoots, branches and foliage wither, twist and dry.
Important! To avoid the harmful effects of heat on Caramel, water the bushes in the dry period.
Productivity and fruiting
One of the main advantages of Caramelka raspberry is its high and quick yield: the crop begins to bear fruit already in the first year after planting. From one bush harvest on average 5 kg of large berries, and per hectare - 112 c. On biennial shoots, the crop is harvested in July, and on annual shoots, in September-October. Up to 90% of the fruits ripen.
The collected berries have a pleasant aroma and a sweet rich taste, they are in no way inferior in quality to forest raspberries. Their taste properties are rated quite high - 4.6 points.
100 g of fruits contain:
- sugar - 4.2%;
- acid - 1%;
- Vitamin C - 48 mg.
Due to the dense pulp, raspberries have good transportability. The berry retains freshness for 3 days if stored in the refrigerator, but good syrups, jams, juices, even kvass can be made from it. Also, most of the crop can be frozen and enjoy fresh, fragrant caramels all winter. The taste of frozen berries is no different from fresh.
- Among the advantages of the variety is also worth noting:
- resistance to attacks of diseases and pests;
- the ability to harvest using mechanical devices;
- endurance during temperature jumps.
- small shoot formation - not more than 7 pieces from a two-year bush.
If you consider all the recommendations of breeders, then get your own caramel plantation is quite easy. Read more about the planting features of the variety below.
Important! If the soil on the plot is acidic, then neutralize it with lime - 500 g / m².
Planting varietal varieties can be done in autumn and spring. Spring planting should be carried out after the warm ambient temperature is kept at a constant level. The approximate dates are the end of March - mid-April. Crops planted in the spring will yield crops in the fall.
The advantage of spring planting - Rapid rooting of planting material and effective growth of vegetative mass. Minus - fruiting productivity is slightly lower than that of Caramel, which was planted in the fall, because young plants spend most of their vitality to take root.
Important! Autumn planting should be done no later than 20 days before the start of frost.
Experienced gardeners are advised to plant this variety of remont raspberries in the fall: depending on the region, this may be mid-September - early October. Planting material rooted before the onset of cold and frost in the spring will focus all its forces on the growth and development of shoots, as well as the formation of the crop.
Choosing the right place
To plant Caramel, you need to pick up a well-lit, warm, slightly elevated area. If the climate in the region is dry and hot, then planting the crop is necessary in semi-shaded areas.
The species does not welcome low places, since they can be flooded by rain or melt water. Also, sections on which groundwater is not shallow are unacceptable for her: excessive humidity adversely affects the culture and contributes to the development of fungal diseases on plant rhizomes.
Important! Do not plant this raspberry variety in the area where solanaceous (peppers, tomatoes) or strawberries grew last year. Good predecessors of culture are cucumbers, legumes, zucchini. As neighbors, she prefers apple trees, cherries, red currants, but does not tolerate the proximity of grapes, sea buckthorn, parsley.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Caramel seedlings are recommended to be purchased in trusted specialized stores.
When buying, pay attention to the following criteria:
- the presence of leaves on the seedling. More precisely, the leaves should be absent, since their presence indicates that the seller did not comply with the rules for storing planting material in the winter, and spent a lot of life seedlings on building foliage.Such seedlings will take root, but they may not give a harvest in the first year: they simply will not have the strength to do this;
- Do not buy seedlings with existing dried leaves that break easily. This suggests that the rules for their procurement were violated or planting material was damaged by pests;
- pay attention to the core cut. It should be similar to the subcortical layer of raspberries;
- carefully inspect the seedlings: if you find mold on them or dark or light spots - refuse such a purchase, because you are offered sick planting material;
- pay attention to the roots of the seedlings: they must be alive and elastic.
Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to hold for 1 hour in a solution of growth biostimulants. You can use "Kornevin", "Heteroauxin." This will contribute to the rapid root formation and increase the immunity of plants. Before planting, seedlings must be cut, shortening a third of the length.
Important! Give preference to even seedlings. This is not an aesthetic preference: the presence of bends and knots on the stems indicates a disease of root cancer.
Landing technology is reduced to the following points:
- Thoroughly digging the site and cleaning it of the remains of previous plants, weeds and their roots. This should be done 14 days before the planned landing.
- Fertilizing the site during digging. A fertilizer is prepared per 1 m² from 2 buckets of humus, 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium nitrate (can be replaced with ash - 30 g).
- Preparation of landing holes. The depth of each hole should be 40 cm, the diameter should be 50 cm. A distance of 1–1.5 m should be observed between the rows, and 70 cm between the seedlings.
- Creating at the bottom of the hole a small mound of clean, fertile soil.
- Putting a seedling on a formed mound and good laying of its roots.
- Covering the landing pit with soil, making sure that there are no voids around the seedling. If planting is carried out in the spring, then it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is at the same level with the soil. The root neck of raspberries planted in autumn is deepened into the soil by 2-3 cm.
- Watering the plants using 5 liters of water for each.
- Mulching the soil with straw or hay (10 cm).
Video: Raspberry repair. Features of planting and care
Caring for Caramel is watering, feeding, pruning, prevention and protection from pests.
Watering is one of the most important care points. TOthe ultura is hygrophilous, but an excess of moisture must not be allowed. Watering frequency - 1 time per week. The amount of water for one bush is 10 buckets. It is necessary to water in the morning or in the evening. Do not water the crop under the scorching sun.
The culture will report a lack of water with weakened and dried shoots, small berries. If there is too much water, then the tops of the plants begin to turn yellow. It is important to use drip irrigation.Loosening the soil under the bush is necessary after each irrigation in order to remove the earth crust, which is an obstacle to the flow of air to the roots.
Carefully monitor the appearance of the Caramel, because it is he who will tell you about the need for fertilizer application:
- yellow foliage and weakly growing shoots indicate a lack of nitrogen;
- deformation of leaves and falling ovaries - a signal that the culture needs phosphorus;
- twisted leaves with a dark rim indicate a lack of potassium;
- yellowing of the leaves from the middle to the edges indicates a deficiency of magnesium.
In the first year after planting, the culture can not be fed. In the second year of life in spring, you need to dig up the soil under the bushes and make fertilizers consisting of ammonium nitrate - 40 g, nitrogen - 60 mg, potassium salt - 60 mg. And in the summer feed the bushes with nitrophos (dilute 60 g in 10 l of water). After the season ends, fertilize your caramel plantation with 50 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt (can be replaced with wood ash - 500 g).
Important! Fertilizer dosages are indicated on 1 m².
The formation of the bush is the key to high-quality raspberry productivity. If you want to harvest twice a season, then after the first fruiting cut the tops of the young shoots by 15 cm and remove the two-year-old stems, from which the fruits were harvested. If you intend to harvest once, then mow the planting after fruiting.
In the spring, frozen and dry stems are removed from the bush. Pinch meter shoots before flowering. This is necessary in order for the lateral processes to appear.
Harvesting and storage
The berries of this variety ripen unevenly, so it is impossible to collect the entire crop in one day - raspberries are harvested as they ripen, picking red berries. Ripening occurs in late July - mid-August.
The best time for harvesting is in the afternoon. Picking berries must be careful, trying not to press them with the thumb and forefinger and not to crush. Do not pull raspberries, which do not break off the first time, it has not yet ripened.
Important! Pay attention to the lower shoots and stems, so as not to miss the ripe red berries and to prevent overriding.
The berry retains freshness for 3 days if you keep it in the refrigerator. It is recommended to store frozen berries for a period of 1 year.
In autumn, after the end of the growing season and the last harvest, Caramel should be prepared for wintering. Breeders recommend raspberries, which are grown as an annual crop, to be mowed completely and cover the roots with mulch from straw, hay or sawdust.
Important! Do not overdo it with insulation: agrofibre should not be pulled faster than a week before frosts, as plants can vypryat.
Even if only one caramel bush grows in your garden, then after a few years, you can get a whole raspberry grove.
Important! This variety is not inherent in reproduction by layering and ground green cuttings.
To do this, you should familiarize yourself with the main methods of breeding a selection variety:
- Division of the bush. Belongs to the most popular methods of propagation of any type of raspberry. The procedure can be performed both in autumn and spring. The essence of this method is to shorten the shoots of an adult healthy bush to 45 cm. Then you need to dig a bush and divide it into 3-5 parts depending on its size. Make sure that each separated part has powerful and developed roots, as well as 2-3 healthy shoots. Plant the resulting bushes in a new permanent place. The advantage of the method is the ease and speed of implementation.
- Root offspring. The processes that appear near the uterine bush at a distance of 30 cm are excellent seedlings. You can dig and transplant them when you reach 10-15 cm in height. Seedlings with roots 10–12 cm long take root well. Before transplanting, the leaves of seedlings must be cut off and provided with semi-shaded conditions for the first two weeks. In this way, raspberries can be propagated throughout the season.
- Root cuttings. The method is carried out in autumn or spring. Its essence is to dig up the rhizome of the uterine bush at a distance of 40 cm from its base. You need to dig out the roots with a diameter of 2 cm and cut them into cuttings about 10 cm long.Cuttings must be laid flat in previously prepared grooves (10-15 cm deep) in loose fertile soil, covered with soil and watered. If you carried out root cuttings in spring, then seedlings grown from cuttings can be relocated to a permanent place in September. Mulch cuttings harvested in the fall until spring.
- Seminal. Gardeners do not resort to it. This method is the lot of breeders, because in the process of its implementation a lot of labor, time and effort is spent, and the resulting plants are devoid of varietal characteristics, and you will not end up with large berries.
- Green cuttings. It is carried out in early or mid-June. From a healthy shoot, cuttings of 10-15 cm with a white lower part, which is below ground level, need to be cut. The resulting planting material should be placed in “Kornevin” or “Heteroauxin” for 12 hours and planted in a previously prepared area, and then covered with a film to create a greenhouse effect. Care of the cuttings consists in daily ventilation and regular watering. In autumn, this way you will get seedlings ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
Diseases and Pests
Subject to the rules of cultivation of the variety, Caramel is a raspberry variety resistant to the attacks of diseases and pests. But even with all the agrotechnical features culture can be affected by the following diseases:
Did you know? From nectar, which bees collect from one hectare of forest raspberries, 70 kg of honey is obtained, and from a hectare of garden culture — 50 kg of honey.
The main pests that can be put on your plantation and destroy the crop are raspberry beetle, ticks, aphids, kidney moths, and collembolas. Preventive measures from pests - compliance with agricultural regulations. The fight against them is to treat the bushes with insecticides, for example, Actellic or colloidal sulfur.
As you can see, growing a caramel breeding raspberry variety is actually not difficult. The main thing is to follow the rules of culture cultivation. Your efforts will be rewarded with a large amount of sweet fragrant berries, compote or jam from which will delight you and your loved ones on long winter evenings and warm you with memories of summer.
Variety of red-fruit repairing raspberries "Caramel" erect, slightly prickly. Berries are large up to 12g; average 6g; yield up to 5kg per bush and up to 20t / ha. The taste differs sharply from the existing repair varieties of raspberries, the berry is VERY sweet, with the aroma of forest raspberries, the flesh is juicy, the stem is easy to separate. The berries are dense, dry, transportable. The first berries in the conditions of the Nizhny Novgorod region ripen in 2013 on August 1 in 2014 on July 24. Before frosts he manages to give 90% of the crop. The variety is ideal for both private and industrial gardening. Due to the high degree of shoot formation, it gives the first crop per year of planting. Creates a fruit wall and the first commercial crop in the second year of planting. For laying an industrial garden, you can plant in 1m in a row, i.e. 3300pcs / ha, when laying a garden with other varieties of Russian breeding, it is recommended to plant in 0.5m in a row or 6600pcs / ha, and Polish varieties that clog Russian gardens recommend planting 20,000 / ha. Caramel in industrial cultivation of a berry berry can reduce the cost of planting a garden by at least two, the cost of planting material during planting is 70-80% of the total starting costs. And the first crop per year of planting and the first commercial crop in the second year after planting accelerates the payback of a berry by 1 -2 years. In the spring of 2015, the nursery plans to bring the new variety "Caramel" to retail, commercial and industrial sale.