Black raspberry garden, or ezhimalina: how to plant, agricultural technology
Berries such as raspberries and blackberries are known to almost everyone, and no one doubts their usefulness. However, a hybrid of these two cultures, although it has existed for a very long time, has not yet received wide distribution in summer cottages, despite its obvious positive qualities. About what is Yezemalin, what are its characteristics and features of cultivation, will be described later.
Features of a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries
Ezemalin is a berry shrub obtained by crossing raspberries and blackberries. Such a hybrid, as a rule, is very hardy, characterized by stability and good quality characteristics of the fruit. Depending on which of the maternal components in the plant prevails, the properties of berries can change in one direction or another.
Did you know? Ezemalin is sometimes called a logan berry, named after breeder D.H. Logan from the USA. He managed to get such a bush on his own site due to the random mutual pollination of raspberries and blackberries growing nearby.
Differences from Raspberries
To evaluate the properties of a hybrid, it is important to understand what its differences from the original cultures are.
So, unlike raspberries, logan berries are characterized by:
- typical burgundy or bluish tint of fruits;
- more dense structure of the skin of the berries;
- longer fruiting period (up to 10 years, while raspberries - only 3-4 years);
- structure of the bush: ezhimalina looks like a weaving bush;
- hybrid berries are significantly larger (about 5 cm in length, with raspberries - up to 3 cm);
- high productivity (up to 2.5 kg of berries from 1 bush, while from raspberry - not more than 300 g).
Differences from Blackberry
Blackberry gave this hybrid the main positive characteristics, however, there are certain features due to selection:
- blackberries are expressed in pronounced black color, while the fruits of blackberry can vary in shade from dark red to blue-black;
- the hybrid has a deeper underlying root system, which makes it significantly more drought-resistant compared to the mother shrub;
- the structure of the bush of ezhimalina combines the features of raspberry and blackberry: at the base, the branches grow strictly upwards, and then are parallel to the ground.
Features planting ezhimaliny
Few gardeners are familiar with this plant, and therefore, before you decide on it, you need to familiarize yourself with the technique of planting and growing this garden culture.
Ezhemalin, like any hybrid variety, is not too whimsical and hardy, but this does not cancel the basic rules for choosing a place for its planting.
The main requirements for the site are the presence of good lighting on it and protection from drafts. The soil should be loose and fertile, it is advisable to avoid excessively moist soil.
The right choice of seedling
Cultivating a crop will not be difficult if you approach the selection of planting material correctly:
Important! When buying, it is better to choose plants whose roots are wrapped with fabric, since storing seedlings in a plastic wrap causes overmoistening and rotting of the root system.
- It is better to buy seedlings in trusted places to avoid the acquisition of diseased shrubs.
- When examined, it is important to pay attention to the kidneys and the root system. So, the seedling should have at least 3 buds, and the roots should be moist, without damage, dark patches and rot.
- A healthy, ready-to-plant seedling usually has several stems, dense and resistant.
It is recommended to plant young Yezemalin on a site according to the rules adopted for raspberries: in autumn or spring. At the same time, 4–5 weeks before this, the soil must be prepared by adding to its upper layer of fertilizer (superphosphate - 70 g, cow manure - 20 kg, potassium sulfate - 50 g per 1 m² of soil).
It is not worth using chicken manure when preparing the land - this can lead to an acid burn of plant roots. Transplanting seedlings into open ground can be carried out according to 2 standard schemes: in separate holes and in trenches.
The bush, or fossa, method of planting is used by gardeners most often due to its simplicity. It consists in the fact that the seedlings are planted in pre-prepared holes.
Important! With the fossa method of planting, it is imperative to ensure that the neck of the seedling remains above the soil surface.
The procedure in this case is as follows:
- At the selected site, dig holes 40 × 40 cm in size and 40–50 cm deep at a distance of 80 cm from each other. If you plan to plant bushes in several rows, the row spacing should be at least 1.2 m.
- At the bottom of the hole, pour a small hill of soil, along which carefully distribute the roots of the seedling. Then evenly sprinkle with the earth about half and pour at the rate of 5 liters of water per 1 bush.
- After watering, add the remaining soil, tighten and mulch the surface of the soil around the bush with sawdust or straw.
The method of planting hedgehogs in trenches is used by gardeners much less often due to the greater complexity of the process compared to those described above. However, it allows the root system to quickly adapt to new conditions.
This method includes several stages:
- Dig trenches 45–50 cm deep and 55–60 cm wide at a prepared site. The aisle, as in the fossa method, is 1.2–1.5 m.
- Mix part of the dug up earth with humus and pour about 10 cm thick on the bottom of the recesses. Sprinkle another 10 cm of ordinary soil on top of the fertile mixture.
- Plant the seedlings in a trench with a pitch of 40–45 cm from each other, carefully spreading the roots, and then pour 5–6 liters of water on the bush at the rate of calculation.
- From above, fill the root system with previously excavated soil, trying to compact the surface.
Watering and feeding after planting
Ezemalin, like most hybrids, is a very unpretentious crop, respectively, usually it has enough natural precipitation to feed the soil with moisture, provided that mulching has been carried out. However, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features and weather conditions of the area where the bush is grown. In severe drought, water the crop 1 time per week, at the rate of 30 liters of water per 1 bush, preventing drying of the upper soil layer.
Logan berry should also be fed correctly, since excess fertilizer can do more harm than good. The plant needs nutrients primarily at the stage of intensive growth and during fruiting. For the first time, shrubs fertilize when flowering is completed, for this use nitrogen-containing and phosphoric fertilizers.
Best for this is an infusion of cow manure (the ratio of manure to water per 1 bush is 1: 6) with the addition of 50 g of superphosphate. This top dressing is repeated 2 more times: when the first fruits appear and before harvesting begins. Also, once every 2-3 years, 5 kg of compost is laid under each bush.
Trimming and using trellis in growing
An important element of caring for the manor is the cutting of bushes, the purpose of which is not only the formation of a crown, but also ensuring normal growth and adequate lighting of the entire planting.
Trimming is carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn.At the beginning of the season, weak stems and shoots are usually cut, leaving the tallest and strongest (about 10 shoots on the bush remain), and also remove the growth that has gone beyond the row.
Autumn procedure involves the complete removal of old stems, save only young shoots. Such sanitary pruning is carried out after fruiting is completed.
Since aronia raspberry is a partially woven shrub and reaches an impressive height, Experienced gardeners recommend using trellis as a support for the plant. A simple trellis is used, consisting of 2 supports placed at a distance of 2 m from each other. Between supports, 2-3 rows of thick wire are pulled, to which the branches of the bush are tied as they grow.
Like any other plant, a logan berry can propagate in various ways: seeds, shoots, cuttings. It should be noted that the seed method is practically not used due to its low efficiency.
Did you know? Long since crumpled and dried in Russia raspberry leaves used to brew a drink. Such "tea" has powerful restorative properties.
- Reproduction by root cuttings. In early spring, carefully dig out the root, select shoots having a thickness of 6–7 mm, cut into pieces of 10–15 cm, lay in furrows dug in advance, and sprinkle with earth. Then provide standard watering before germination.
- Use of apical and horizontal layering. Choose long shoots (about 40 cm), bend them down and bury them in the pits. Usually, at the beginning of a new season, cuttings take root and give their own shoots. When the length reaches 12-15 cm, the young bush can be separated from the main one.
Wintering in the open ground
Ezemalin belongs to frost-resistant plants, and nevertheless (especially for young bushes) it is better to provide her with additional shelter for the winter. Most often, the stems of the bush are simply removed from the garter and laid horizontally along the row. From above the plant is covered with a layer of straw, dry leaves or sawdust. If you have to winter in the region with heavy snowfalls, then you can refuse additional insulation.
So, a consideration of such an unusual garden plant, as the raspberry, allows us to state with confidence that it is able to take pride of place among other berry crops due to its unpretentiousness, stability and high yield. Moreover, abundant flowering, large buds and unusual berries will undoubtedly be a wonderful decoration of your site.