Fertilizer raspberries in the fall - the key to a future crop
Depleted by active growth and the formation of a full-fledged crop, bushes urgently need autumn top dressing. Raspberry gratefully responds to fertilizers, therefore, before the "winter rest" of the plants, the soil in which they grow must be saturated with useful substances. This will ensure proper growth and abundant fruiting in the next season. What substances to feed the plants, why and when to do this, read further in the review.
Why and how to feed raspberries in the fall
Thanks to the autumn top dressing, the plant will be able to “transfer” the winter cold “painlessly” and lay healthy buds for next year. Abundant fruiting is a fairly energy-intensive process for the crop. The bushes absorb all the nutrients present in the soil, and if you do not feed them, then next spring the plant will not be able to produce a large crop, and the growth of the bush itself will slow down.
Important! Fertilizing bushes that finish bearing fruit in the middle or end of summer is also called autumn, because they withstand a short period before fertilizing, and nutrients are introduced in the autumn.
How to identify nutritional deficiencies
To determine the need for nutritional support for raspberry bushes, knowledge of the obvious signs of a deficiency of phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium or potassium will help. What you should pay attention to:
- With a lack of nitrogen, the lower leaves of the bush turn yellow, curl up and stop growing. If signs of deficiency appeared in the fall, then top dressing should be moved to the beginning of spring. Otherwise, the shoots will not have time to get stronger and prepare for the cold.
- Weak and thin young branches are a sign of phosphorus starvation. Leaves turn purple, crimson or purple. When such signs appear, phosphorus-containing chemicals are urgently needed.
- Due to the lack of potassium, the leaves of the raspberry bush turn brown, and their edges begin to die. This phenomenon is called "marginal necrosis." The plant should be saturated with preparations containing potassium, which will help it prepare for frost.
If there is no way to feed the soil with "industrial" fertilizer, it is recommended to plant siderata plants (lupine, a mixture of vetch and oats or mustard). This is best done before planting the main crop or after harvesting raspberries. Siderata is grown specifically to normalize the condition of the soil and saturate with nutrients. Before the onset of winter, the soil is dug up along with vegetable fertilizer - this is how fertilizer crops can mix with the soil, overtake and saturate the soil with useful substances.
Did you know? The term "siderata" was coined in Rome. It came from the word "sidera" and means "a star that fell from the sky." Roman farmers have noticed that siderat plants play an important role in the cultivation of other crops, which in the future will make it possible to abandon other fertilizers altogether.
How to feed according to the type of soil
It is very important to fertilize raspberries by the rules. The soil in all areas is different in composition and the need for certain nutrients also varies.
Sandy soil “suffers” from a deficiency of mineral and organic components. Therefore, it must be fertilized regularly. Such land is recommended to cover with mulch or to plant siderata plants. Fertilizes the landing site and cow manure well. The amount of fertilizer in clay soil is recommended to be applied 1.5-2 times more (from the standard norm).
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
During fruiting, the plant consumes more phosphorus and potassium. Therefore, these chemical elements must be present in the composition of fertilizers used in the specified period.
It is more efficient to feed in a comprehensive manner. To do this, use the following drugs:
- Superphosphate is better for autumn phosphate top dressing.. This nitrogen-phosphorus preparation is applied under raspberry bushes in the fall, and by spring the components will already begin to affect the plant. Apply 50-60 g of granular fertilizer per 1 m². It is introduced into the loosened soil under a bush to a depth of 7–10 cm. If double superphosphate is acquired, add 15–20 g per m². The commonly used drug is Ammophos (15–20 g per m²). Gardeners recommend digging fertilizers into the grooves around the plant, the depth of which should be 15–20 cm, and the distance between the recesses — about 25–35 cm. The mineral mixture is additionally saturated with magnesium, potassium, and sulfur. Therefore, it promotes the growth of shoots, an increase in yield and helps to resist disease.
- Potassium is also indispensable.. It is this element that helps the plant survive the winter. As such top dressing, you can use kalimagnesia, magnesium sulfate or potassium sulfate - 20-30 g per m² (you can dissolve the drug in a bucket of water). Potassium sulfate or potassium sulfate help plants withstand winter frosts. It is recommended to use 25-30 g of the drug per 1 m² or dissolve in 10 l of water. In the absence of the above fertilizers, you can add 130-200 g of wood ash per 1 m². Potash substances such as diammophos and potassium metaphosphate should not be used in raspberry fertilizer, as they can cause chlorosis. All preparations must be embedded in the soil. So they can better affect the root and increase the frost resistance of the whole plant.
- Before fertilizing the soil with nitrogen-containing substances, it is necessary to clean the raspberry from weeds and loosen the ground between the rows of raspberries (up to 15 cm), and on beds with shrubs - up to 8 cm in depth. The best source of nitrogen is rotted manure. It is introduced into the soil in the amount of 4 kg per 1 m², for digging. It is important to know that such a fertilizer is permissible to apply 1 time in 3 years. An excess of nitrogen provokes the rapid growth of shoots in the autumn period, when, on the contrary, leaves should fall on all plants. This reduces the winter hardiness of the shrub itself. Therefore, novice summer residents decide not to use the autumn nitrogen supply at all and this is not entirely correct. At the end of summer, raspberry bushes undergo repeated root growth, and nitrogen acts as the main stimulant for proper metabolism.
You should pay attention to the age of the plant and its size. For young and compact bushes under the age of 5 years, the dosage of mineral fertilizers should be reduced by 30-40% of the standard norm.
Did you know? For the first time they learned about mineral fertilizers in 1859 from a book on agricultural chemistry by the author Justus von Liebig. This chemist argued that thanks to mineral nutrition it is possible to increase soil fertility. But at that time, such a discovery among farmers did not receive support, and gained popularity only after several decades.
Organic fertilizers are usually abundant in nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. If you add this top dressing at the end of summer, immediately after pruning, the composition will have time to decompose, strengthen the root system and raspberries will yield a plentiful harvest next season. For fertilizing raspberry soil, the following organic matter is best suited:
- Chicken droppings. This is one of the most effective top dressing in the autumn. Make it recommended in liquid form.
But in such a fertilizer there is a high content of active substances that can burn roots. Therefore, you should dilute the litter with water in a proportion of 1:20 and add 0.5 l of solution for each bush.
Important! Soil slowly absorbs nitrogen, which is contained in bird droppings. Therefore, it is better to fertilize them with classic and repairing raspberry varieties immediately after harvest — at the end of summer.
- Cow dung. 5-10 kg of rotted manure should fall on 1 m² of soil. Such top dressing will contribute to the spring growth of raspberries and protect the root system from frost.
- Compost. Such organics should thoroughly overtake. Optimum - more than a year. Compost top dressing intensively nourishes the soil with useful components and destroys pathogens. It is best made from weeds, tops or fallen leaves.
- Bone flour. Saturates the soil with phosphorus and potassium. 200-300 g of fertilizer in dry form is applied per 1 m². After this, you can not fertilize the soil with phosphorus-containing preparations for 2-3 years, since the flour will release useful substances into the soil for the entire specified period.
In order to fertilize the plant, not only industrial preparations are used, but also natural, herbal ingredients. As nutritional compounds recommend:
- AT banana peel contains a lot of potassium, which makes it incredibly useful for raspberries. Within a week, 10 fruit skins are insisted in 10 liters of water. The resulting solution is watered the ground under the bushes, which will help saturate the roots with useful substances.
- Baker's yeast will contribute to the rapid dissolution of organic fertilizers and strengthen the nutrition of the bushes. So, 10 g of dry yeast and 100 g of sugar should be dissolved in 10 liters of warm water. Let it brew for 3 hours and mix with water in a ratio of 1: 5. Such a mixture is watered every bush. If you use pressed yeast, then 10 g of water should use 500 g of product.
- Onion peel help saturate raspberry potassium and protect against pests. Within two weeks, 50 g of husks are infused in 10 liters of water. The resulting solution is watered with raspberry planting.
- Nettle and comfrey They are used to strengthen the plant's immunity, accelerate the growth and saturation of potassium, magnesium and calcium. Within two weeks, it is necessary to insist in 10 liters of water, 0.5 kg of each type of grass. Then the solution must be filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. Fertilizer pours soil around each bush.
- Infusion of 2 liters of chicken manure, 3 kg of manure, 1 kg of nettle and 0.25 kg of ash. The components are soaked in 20 liters of water and infused in a warm place for one week. Then the mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. Top dressing is carried out at the rate of 0.5 liters per 1 bush.
Combined top dressing
There are fertilizers that contain a whole complex of substances necessary for growth and good fruiting. Such combined mixtures can not only be bought at the store, but also prepared at home.
Important! Natural fertilizers are also used dosed. If the ground «easy», top dressing with natural preparations should be done no more than 1 time per year.
The most effective is considered a complex of 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium chloride and 5 kg of humus. All components must be mixed evenly. Make grooves around the bushes, add the mixture there and cover it with earth.
For feeding during the period of active fruiting, a complex of 60 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potassium salt and 30 g of ammonium nitrate is well suited. The components are mixed and applied to the soil at the rate of 250 g per 1 m².
Combined mixtures are best used for plants older than three years. It is very important to comply with the indicated dosage.
Before feeding, it is important to pay attention to the condition and quantity of the harvested sweet berries. Only then can we understand what fertilizer and how much should be fed the plant before wintering. But remember that any additives should be made in the right proportion and on a specific date. Careful implementation of the care procedures is the key to obtaining large fruits in the maximum quantity.