When and how to prune raspberries in spring: rules, methods and deadlines
An unpretentious raspberry plant in cultivation nevertheless requires special care to obtain good yields and control the growth of raspberry. For this control and ensuring good production, the trimming procedure is performed annually, which this material will tell about.
Spring or fall pruning: what to choose
Raspberry care is minimal throughout the year - it is a very grateful and productive plant, but without pruning and forming bushes it can turn into an invasive look and capture the entire garden.
Raspberries have unique characteristics of growth and fruiting: the roots of the plant are perennial, and the stems are biennial, they live only two vegetative periods and then die.
It is possible to carry out pruning both in spring and in autumn - the choice is left to the gardener based on the availability of free time, climatic features of the region and snow cover in winter
Why cut raspberries in the spring, the benefits
Spring pruning must be done, even if such events were carried out in the fall, since winter stem injuries, dried branches with no signs of growth are visible. In spring, rapid growth of unproductive growth begins, and the removal of about a third of new growths, especially the earliest, allows fresh air to circulate inside the bushes, and growing branches become more powerful.
Video: Spring pruning raspberries
Some gardeners prefer pruning in spring because the raspberry root system is nourished by nutrients from stems left in the fall, resulting in a better crop.
What can be expected if the procedure was not performed:
- there will be fewer berries and lower quality;
- the bushes look like wild thickets and lose their attractiveness for the garden landscape;
- planting takes up more space;
- Harvesting is difficult due to the complexity of the approach.
Important! Thawed stems can be a hotbed of the spread of harmful insects and diseases. Infected branches should be burned or thrown away and not used for compost.
Step-by-step procedure instructions
Step-by-step instructions for spring pruning of non-repairing (summer) raspberries:
- Cut off at the ground level the stems that bore fruit last year. You can distinguish between fruit-bearing and dead stems by color: the new ones, which will bear fruit in the summer, are reddish, and the old ones are brown and dry.
- Remove any weak, diseased and broken branches.. Trim the ends of stems that have died as a result of winter injuries to living tissue.
- Shorten the stems of the new season to the desired length (100-120 cm), cutting the tip to the first swollen bud Do not cut the tips by more than 25%, as this will reduce the yield. Shortening develops lateral branches, limits growth and reduces lodging of bushes and damage to branches under the weight of berries.
- If raspberries grow in a row, remove all shoots at a distance of 30-50 cm from the row. Raspberry has a wide root system, which sometimes gives a shoot of 1 m or more from the parent plant. Dig any wandering shoots growing outside the raspberry branch. Make sure that there is enough light and air inside the bushes to ensure good ripening of the berries and reduce the risk of fungal diseases.
Removing old raspberry shoots
How to divide the bush for optimal harvest
To optimize the yield on each bush, leave no more than 4-6 shoots, choosing the strongest (0.5-0.6 cm in diameter at a height of 75 cm) and cut the rest at ground level. After thinning, the remaining growths from one bush should be located at a distance of about 15 cm from each other. For young plantings, this step can be skipped to get a sufficient number of shoots for propagation.
The purpose of this formation of bushes will be to create a row of raspberries with 10-12 fruit stems per 1 meter.
When to crop
To correctly perform all the early spring trimming, you need to choose the time, when the threat of frost is over, the soil will dry out slightly for convenience in raspberries, and buds will begin to form on the plant, but there are no leaves. Pruning leafy bushes can slow growth.
In the future, after the leaves bloom, you can re-examine the raspberry and cut the frost-damaged and old branches that have not moved to growth.
Trimming times in various climatic zones
In cold regions with little snow and windy winterswhere bushes are more likely to suffer winter injuries, pruning is best done in autumnand then cover the bushes with insulation. In spring, the bushes inspect and remove the branches damaged by frost.
In regions with a humid climate, autumn pruning is also recommended to avoid the spread of fungal diseases in dense plantings.
In regions with snowy winters, pruning can be delayed until the spring months.as snow cover is a natural shelter and protection against frost. In such regions, spring pruning begins after the snow melts and before the sap flow begins.
In the southern regions with a long and warm autumn, raspberry fruiting is possible until November, therefore, when negative temperatures are established, it is advisable to transfer the pruning of the bushes to spring, otherwise the injuries from the cut will not have time to heal, and the plant will suffer or die.
What should be removed
Every spring to be removed:
- all basal infertile growth;
- smooth green or reddish annual stems are cut to the fruiting level;
- coarser brown biennial stems are removed completely;
- cut dry, problematic and damaged by frost and wind branches.
Did you know? The legends and myths of ancient Greece tell a story according to which the raspberries were white at first, but when the nanny Zeus Ida pricked her finger on the thorns, the blood painted the berries red.
For work on beautification of raspberry, the following tools and materials will be needed:
- sharp secateurs, delimbers or clippers;
- garter material (twine, wire, twine);
- protective glasses;
- tight gloves;
- long-sleeved clothing and pants.
How to prune raspberries in spring
Spring pruning of raspberries is an important agrotechnical event, on which crop volume, raspberry health, and ease of plant care largely depend. Every gardener who wants to grow raspberries on his site should master the basic rules of this procedure.
If there are no repair varieties on the site that allow you to collect ripened crops in the fall, you can use stepwise pruning of summer varieties, and thereby stretch fruiting for a longer period.
Important! Strong shortening of the shoots reduces the overall yield, but allows you to increase the size of the berries and prolong fruiting.
The method of such pruning usually consists in shortening the tops of the shoots to different lengths: one by 10-15 cm, the second by 20-30 cm, the third by half, the fourth by a stump of 3-5 cm. Hence, the fruiting proceeds in stages: first on the first stems, passing gradually to the second and third. The last shoots grow over the summer and bring berries in late summer or early autumn.
Double Sobolev trimming: advantages and disadvantages
For the double pruning method according to Sobolev, strict deadlines are defined, and it is aimed at stimulating the growth of late fruiting branches:
- In late spring or early summer, when the shoot grows to a height of 50-60 cm (depending on the variety), the top of the stem is shortened by 5-10 cm.This leads to the formation of side branches, which will grow stronger and overwinter by autumn. In the leaf sinuses, the fruit buds of the crop are laid for the next season.
- The same pruning pattern is carried out in the spring the next year after the leaves open - last year’s lateral branches are shortened by 10-15 cm, which leads to a new active branching and ripening of the additional crop on the hands.
The method allows you to stretch the fruiting of summer varieties and increase the total yield. But the numerous branching makes the bushes thick, there are not enough nutrients for the development of all branches, therefore, optimal thinning is indispensable. On the bush should be no more than 5 fruiting shoots and no more than 9 lateral branches of substitution.
This procedure is aimed at maintaining the health and strength of raspberry bushes. Removing all problematic branches (diseased, dry, broken) and cutting the tops of the shoots stimulates the growth of new fruit branches and ensures the healing of the bush as a whole. Sanitary pruning is an effective tool to combat pests and diseases of raspberries.
In spring, if necessary, pinch the top of the stem by 7-10 cm to stimulate the growth of lateral fruit branches. This procedure is carried out on two-year-old stems, which have reached a height of 1.2-1.5 m. The bushes become more squat and branched, which provides convenience when harvesting.
Video: Pinching repair raspberry varieties
Without pruning and removal of overgrowth, raspberries can turn into impassable wild thickets. One stalk planted this season will yield 15–20 young growths next year.
The bushes lose the necessary sunlight, and the buds on the lower half of the plant die. Without these buds, there will be fewer fruiting branches and a much smaller yield. Dense planting also competes for nutrients and water. As a result, the berries will be small and sour. Shaded and moist areas around dense growth increase the risk of fungal infections.
Spring removal of young growth allows you to avoid all these troubles. It is enough to dig unnecessary growths with a knife or a shovel to a depth of 6-8 cm and remove them from the raspberry. Such uprooted growths can be used to expand your plantation or share with neighbors.
Trimming Repairing Varieties
As for the repairing varieties, each gardener must choose the method of pruning, depending on the desire to get one or two crops per season. Removable raspberries are able to produce crops on last year's stems and on the shoots of the current year.
To get 2 harvests, last year's stems should be left un trimmed - they will form a crop in early summer, and on young annual shoots the berries will ripen in the fall. All weak, sick and damaged canes should be trimmed at ground level, and the left most powerful stems should be shortened by a third.
Important! The raspberry crop in an annual crop is larger than the total yield from double fruiting, so experienced gardeners advise cultivating repair varieties only for the autumn harvest.
To get only an autumn harvest (summer excluded), the entire plantation of remontant raspberries is cut before winter or two-year-old stems are removed in spring.
Pinching the stems of remont raspberries at eye level delays fruiting for about 3 weeks and stimulates the development of lateral branches, which allows you to extend the ripening period in warm climatic zones. But in a cool climate, to speed up the harvest, it is better to leave the end buds intact.
Video: How to prune repair raspberries
Pruning raspberry tree
Tree-shaped raspberries (or shtambovaya) are cut 3 times per season so that it looks like a small tree. The first time they cut it in May when they reach a height of 1 m, having carried out sanitary cleaning and leaving 7 shoots on the bush.Then, in June, the tops are trimmed by 7–10 cm, and in July, lateral shoots are cut to enhance the formation and growth of fruit buds.
Cut Raspberry Care Tips
Further care for pruned raspberries consists in properly feeding the bushes and disinfecting the stems.
In early spring, immediately after pruning, under each raspberry bush, 4 l of overripe humus-rash should be added. This will improve the structure of the soil and provide plants with nutrients. Additionally, you can use mineral fertilizers "Gumi-Omi berry" according to the instructions or wood or straw ash. During the flowering period in May, plantings are re-fed and potash and phosphate fertilizers are added to the rows between plants.
Important! Fertilizing is carried out at a distance of 10 cm from the base of the bush to avoid root burns.
Together with the first buds, numerous harmful insects and diseases awaken in the spring. In order to protect raspberries from damage, the soil, raspberry bushes and neighboring crops must be treated with Bordeaux mixtures, copper sulphate or urea. Spraying can be repeated in the budding phase.
Rejuvenation of the old raspberry
Raspberries need to be renewed and planted every 8-10 years, because over time, the productivity of raspberry bushes decreases - the berries become smaller, the roots give a weak shoot (the root lives 10 years), and diseases and pests accumulate in the soil.
To this end separate the most powerful and healthy growths from the old plant and transfer them to a new place. Early spring rejuvenation of the planting is preferable to autumn. To improve root formation, pinch the top of the shoot to exclude fruiting in the current year. In the next season, this rejuvenated escape will give a new crop.
Did you know? Thieves' raspberry "has nothing to do with our beloved plant - it's just a distorted word" melina "in Hebrew, which means" refuge "
You can dig an earthen lump with a root at the end of winter, divide it by removing the old stems and preserving only the strongest and healthiest shoots. Dig the root or plant in a pot, and in the spring plant it in a new place. Plants planted in spring grow better and can bring several berries in the first summer.
Tie raspberries on a trellis
The raspberry branches overloaded with berries are very heavy and need support to prevent lodging and wind damage. The support system in the form of a wire trellis will facilitate the care of planting and harvesting, will not allow the branches to bend to the ground and keep the berries clean. The plant will receive enough sunlight to make the berries more sweet.
The supporting structures are poles with T-shaped rungs. Two parallel wires are mounted on them at a distance of 60–70 cm. The first wire is placed at a distance of 90 cm from the ground. Twine shoots are tied to these wires as they grow to provide aeration and sun lighting of the landings. Do not tie the knot too tightly - enough so that the wind does not move the stem from its place, and its center is completely open to sunlight.
A row of raspberries will grow between two parallel trellises. Each stem is tied to a wire at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other - one branch to the left wire, the next to the right. This will create a V-shaped garter stalk. If necessary, you can add more rows of wire for a more reliable fastening. Sometimes the wires are stretched from the weight of plants and fruits, so in the early spring when pruning bushes, you need to tighten the wire.
These designs can also be the basis for mesh protection against birds.. The mesh must be installed after the formation of the ovaries, since access to flowers should be open to bees and other pollinating insects.
Gartering plants on trellises will not only keep them healthy and productive, but also create a beautiful landscape of the garden plot
Caring for the bushes after pruning
After pruning, you need to remove the old mulch and fallen leaves from the beds, remove the emerged weeds and carefully loosen the soil no deeper than 3-5 cm under the bushes, since the upper raspberry feeding roots are located close to the soil surface.
Important! A row of raspberries at 30 m can produce 50–75 kg of berries per season with proper agricultural practices.
Apply a new layer of mulch to the beds 5-7 cm, which will inhibit the growth of weeds. As a material for mulching, straw, fallen leaves, wood chips or shavings are suitable, since such material does not contain weed seeds.
In the future, inspect the site and dig up shoots outside the raspberry. Choose the optimal row width and plant grass between the rows.
Raspberries need a lot of water from spring to harvest. Since the root system is in the upper layers of the soil, regular watering is better than occasional deep moisturizing.
Did you know? In the middle of the last century, raspberries were delivered to Scotland from Scotland, which was considered raspberry paradise, in a steam locomotive known as the Raspberry Special.
To keep the plants healthy and productive, make sure they do not dry out in the summer. In case of drought, water the plants every 2-3 days, depending on the load of berries and weather conditions. Watering to young plantings is especially important.
Diseases and Pests
Growing healthy and well-groomed plants is the best defense against harmful lesions. A regular inspection of the plantings will allow you to identify pests and the damage they cause in time and choose the best way to deal with them.
Treat plantings in spring with pest control agents (Karbofos, Fitoverm, Iskra-bio, Tsidal, colloidal sulfur) during raspberry buds bloom. If last year there were serious problems with fungal diseases (anthracnose) and weather the conditions are constantly wet, apply fungicides to protect young plantings.
Dispose of all scraps to eliminate the spread of diseases and insects. During the growing season, remove any plants with deformed leaves, too small and spoiled berries. Watch for stains, discoloration, drying out parts of plants, or mold on leaves or fruits.
Raised 30–50 cm and well-drained beds exclude root rot. Fruit rot appears on thickened and shaded moist areas. For prevention, it is necessary to provide good soil drainage and air circulation in the plantings.
On small garden plantations, it is advisable to select varieties that are resistant to damage and use all possible methods of disease control in order to avoid the use of chemicals.
Although the process of spring pruning of raspberry bushes may seem complicated, once you figure it out and master the technique of caring for the crop, you can not spend much time on these procedures and grow a healthy and productive raspberry on the plot.