Agrotechnics of raspberry cultivation, spring pruning according to Sobolev: methods, advantages, disadvantages
A raspberry bush strewn with berries from bottom to top is the dream of every summer resident. Today, agricultural technology according to Sobolev can help double, or even triple the raspberry crop with the help of double pruning. Its scheme is quite simple, and technology is available. How to achieve the desired result using the innovative method, and what is the subsequent care of the plant, it is worth exploring every gardener.
What is the Sobolev method
Every agronomist who is interested in increasing raspberry productivity is familiar with the method of Alexander Georgievich Sobolev. He devoted many years of his life to work on caring for the culture and conducted over fifty trials on his own raspberry bushes. As a result, a new way has appeared to double the yield of berries without the use of complex agricultural techniques.
Did you know? First raspberry was discovered by the Romans on the Greek island of Crete. This happened back in the 3rd century BC. e.
The rules of planting bushes
Raspberry bush is quite unpretentious and can grow in almost any conditions. To obtain a high yield, the agronomist advises to adhere to such planting rules:
- The direction of the beds is important to arrange from north to south. The site should not be subject to stagnation of rain, swamp and groundwater.
- The place should not be very windy, so it is better to land near the fences.
- The beds must be fenced with slate or wooden blocks, raising 12–20 cm above the ground. So the water will only get to the plantings, not flowing out of them.
- The average length of the beds is about 1 m, it all depends on the number of planted bushes. Keeping a meter distance between the bushes will help to avoid the appearance of diseases on the plant, maintain proper ventilation and a sufficient amount of light.
- Before planting, it is better to fertilize the site, for example, with a mixture of humus, potassium and superphosphate.
- Landing is carried out in early autumn. One bush is placed in a deep hole (about 40 cm). If you combine several seedlings in one hole, there will be a lack of nutrients and the plant may die. Subject to the rules of planting, raspberries can grow in one place up to 15 years.
Why prune raspberries in spring
Sobolev recommends paying great attention to the double pruning of raspberry bushes. Thanks to a unique method, the quantity of flowers and the period of productivity increases.
If the landing was in autumn, then the first pinching should be carried out already in late spring or early summer. This will help the young shoots to branch freely, and the bush will not be very tall. Too long bushes give low productivity and interfere with the formation of new shoots.
Important! Deadline for first trimming —July 10th. If you do not have time, then the new side branches will not ripen and freeze in the winter.
The second pruning of blossoming leaves and side shoots is carried out exactly one year later. it affects the vegetation of fresh buds and the awakening of old. The first pruning of raspberries according to Sobolev is considered a preparatory stage. And only after the second you can get a visible result.
After the snow melts, and the temperature of the soil and air becomes equal, you can begin to normalize raspberry shoots. The exact timing depends on climate and temperature stability. Calendar periods for trimming occur in March-April or April-May. In the southeastern regions of Ukraine and Russia, pruning before April is not recommended. And in countries with softer and a warm climate it can be carried out in early March.
Did you know? According to legend, the first garden with raspberries was laid by the great ruler, the founder of many Russian cities — Yury Dolgoruky.Today, Russia is the world leader in raspberry cultivation (over 200 thousand tons of crops per year).
Behind the traditional spring pinching comes summer. It falls on the harvest period (approximately in August). Dying branches should be removed. This will help shape new shoots and create better lighting. When planning pruning, it is important to consider the characteristics of the variety of shrubs and the volume of fruiting per year.
How to do cropping according to Sobolev: scheme
The work can be divided into several stages:
- First of all, you need to get rid of branches that have already ceased to bear fruit or have begun to die. This procedure is performed provided that pruning has not been done in the fall.
- Frozen shoots are removed. They are determined by dry appearance and the absence of swollen kidneys. Pruning goes to the first living kidney.
- Young shoots must be dug up and cut to the root. It is better to do this with a pruner or shovel, cutting off the sprouts. It is not recommended to pull out or undermine the shoots, because the parent and daughter systems of the shoots are connected.
- Further engaged in transplantation. On 1 m² there should be no more than 30 plants. On one bush there should be 5-6 strong underground shoots. If something is missing, the indicator can always be adjusted in the spring.
- The height of the specimens should be equalized to 1.5 m.
Important! Pruning shears or shovels must be sharp and clean. This will prevent infection or damage to plants.
A good crop can be obtained by cutting raspberries at different heights. In this case, ripening will be phased: from high to low bushes.
Bushes pruning scheme:
- reduced by 10-15 cm;
- cut by 20-30 cm;
- shorten by 70 cm (50% shoot);
- leave 15–20 cm.
Video: Double pruning raspberries according to Sobolev
Double cropping: pros and cons
This method of Sobolev is quite simple to use, but it also has its pros and cons.
- high fecundity of the berry;
- increase harvest time from July to September;
- the effectiveness of the method;
- ease of implementation;
- convenience in harvesting due to the density of the fruit.
- increase in workload;
- climate dependence;
- excessive thickening of raspberry;
- high soil nutritional requirements;
- selection of suitable varieties;
- root growth;
- risk of developing diseases on weak plants.
Despite the disadvantages, gardeners often resort to this method. The choice is justified by high productivity and an increase in the fruiting period of raspberry bushes.
Did you know? A. G. Sobolev received 135 kg of crop on a plot of 50 m² thanks to double cropping. In the 80s. XX century Homestead Management magazine was the first to publish information about the new method.
The essence of double pruning is the exact timing and maintenance of planting density.
The first pruning is carried out in late May-early June. Then the new shoots grow to 70–100 cm. The top is removed by 10–15 cm, this helps to awaken the lateral shoots from the swollen buds. By the end of summer they reach up to 0.5 m in length. It is on them that in a year branches with large and juicy berries will form.
The meaning of the first pinching is to increase the phytomass by 1 m². The main thing: to comply with the deadlines, otherwise the new shoots will not be able to get strong enough and risk freezing in the winter. It is important to remember the right agricultural technique
Exactly one year later, in the spring, shrubs are re-trimmed. The tops are cut by 10-15 cm. By this time, raspberries are already covered with a large number of new leaves. As a result, the growth of sleeping kidneys is stimulated. New shoots are ripening, on which fruiting will occur. The berries will ripen in turn until late autumn.
Is it worth it to double trim repair varieties
Repair raspberries belong to the group of varieties that are able to bear fruit on both biennial and annual shoots. The question arises: is it worth doing pruning by the Sobolev method.There are certain nuances here.
In autumn, fertilized shoots after the first year of life mature at the root, so it is better to prepare before the first frost. Bushes are not removed under the root, but only the top is removed. In the second year, raspberries continue to bear fruit due to overgrown lateral shoots. Biennial processes are removed immediately after harvest. It is important to control the growing shoots.
Important! When choosing a repair raspberry, you need to pay attention to how many times it bears fruit during the year. For example, varieties Hercules, Indian summer, Indian summer-Sobolev method 2 is not suitable.
Bushes that bear fruit once a year are removed under the root. In summer, they harvest from the shoots of the first year. Such varieties are not recommended to be cut by double pruning, because the next shoots do not have time to ripen and harvest shifts closer to winter. This entails a decrease in yield.
Features of care according to the Sobolev method
One of the important stages of raspberry cultivation is subsequent care.
Key rules include the following:
- Timely and regular watering. It is important to avoid drying out the soil.
- It is recommended to refuse from loosening the soil. Shrub roots are too close to the surface and can be damaged. Weeding the beds should be carried out regularly (so that the bush does not overgrow with weeds), but very carefully.
- Mulching. Raspberry loves moisture, but does not tolerate stagnation of water. In this case, Sobolev recommends covering the ground with mulch in the form of cow and horse manure. The earth must be overlaid with 10–20 cm of material and filled with water. An educated crust will nourish and fertilize plants. If there is no manure, then you can use the tops of plants, peat, shavings or any other material that prevents the evaporation of moisture. As a mulch, you can also lay a layer of old newspapers and cover them with compost. These methods are great for growing raspberries in the country, when there is no constant access to watering. It is important to know that the mulch layer should not exceed 5 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for the root system to “breathe” normally and poor shoot development will negatively affect the crop.
- Shelter for the winter. The surviving shoots are bent to the ground and fixed with metal staples. To protect against frost, cover with tarpaulin or agrofibre from above.
- Top dressing. If the shoots dry out, curl or turn pale, then they need top dressing. The tincture of bird droppings and wood ash works well. For this, 3 l of litter is stirred in 6 l of water and left for two days. After this, 1 liter of this infusion should be poured into a bucket and add some wood ash. The mixture is ready. Under normal soil conditions, such top dressing is applied 2-3 times a year.
- Pest protection. Many gardeners who grow raspberries recommend in the early spring, before the start of the growing season, and also in the fall, after harvesting, to process the raspberry with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid. This eliminates the appearance of pests in the garden.
It’s easy to take care of raspberries using the Sobolev method. The main thing: to comply with all of the above recommendations, take into account the characteristics of the variety and care. Then you can collect a lot of admiring reviews about your own crop and not look back at the old technologists.