How to plant raspberries in the summer: conditions, methods and schemes
Usually raspberries are planted and transplanted in spring and autumn. In some cases, you can plant a seedling in the summer, creating suitable conditions for it. The summer planting of raspberry seedlings will be discussed in this article.
Planting raspberries in the summer: the pros and cons
Of course, it is best to plant seedlings in spring or autumn, when the weather is warm outside and the ground is quite humid.
- But summer planting has its advantages:
- urgent planting of a randomly purchased cuttings of the desired variety;
- seedlings with a closed root system easily take root;
- in early summer, green root shoots appear with which raspberries can be propagated;
- You can get the crop in the first year, 2-3 months after planting.
But do not organize massive raspberry plantings in the summer.
- This method has significant disadvantages:
- in the southern regions is not recommended due to a very hot and arid summer;
- the first 2-3 weeks requires daily monitoring of soil moisture;
- shading may be necessary so that planted sprouts do not burn the hot sun.
You can plant different varieties in summer, especially with a closed root system. When choosing a variety, you need to pay attention to its characteristics:
- frost resistance;
- drought tolerance;
- immunity to disease;
Preference may be given to early-ripening cultivars. Seedlings in containers quickly take root and will be able to give the first berries by fall.
Conditions for good growth and fruiting
Regardless of when the raspberry bushes are planted, you need to carefully select the site and prepare it well. This is especially important for repair varieties. They are more productive and frost-resistant, but very demanding on conditions.
Choosing a landing place
Raspberry loves the sun and moisture, but not waterlogging, and is also afraid of strong gusts of wind, so the place for planting it must meet such requirements:
- sunny, not obscured by buildings or trees;
- sheltered from strong winds, on the south side of the garden;
- holds snow in the winter;
- not a lowland or hollow where melt and rainwater stagnate;
- with a deep occurrence of groundwater, not closer than 1 m.
It is also important to pay attention to predecessors. If the selected site corresponds in all respects, but cultures that raspberries do not like before grew on it, then it is not suitable for planting it. The bad predecessors are: raspberries of a different variety, garden strawberries and solanaceous (tomatoes, peppers and potatoes), and the good ones are other vegetables, legumes, rape and other siderates, as well as currants and gooseberries.
The necessary composition of the soil: how to prepare the soil
For fast rooting and abundant harvests, fertile and loose earth is needed, allowing air and water to pass through. Raspberry plantings grow best on nutritious sandy and loamy soils.. Sandy and heavier soils need to be plentifully fertilized with organic matter. Non-acidic soils will be preferred. Acidity can be reduced by liming, i.e. by adding ground limestone or dolomite.
It is advisable to prepare the land for plantings in advance, for example, in the fall or at least a week in advance. But summer planting is often urgent, forced, so the site is prepared immediately before planting plants in the ground. Preparation includes:
- garbage and weed with roots;
- deep digging or cultivation of 30 cm;
- fertilizer application (humus, mineral NPK complex and wood ash);
- repeated shallow digging.
Important! Experts have noticed that the best yields are given by raspberry bushes planted on a site that was previously under black steam, or on which green manure crops (mustard, rye, lupine) grew, then plowed into the ground.
The size and depth of the landing pit
The size of the landing pit should not be less than 40 × 40 cm. If no fertilizers were applied during digging, this should be done directly in each pit. Top-up composition: humus bucket, superphosphate (200 g) and potassium salt (100 g) or wood ash (100 g). Fertilizers must be mixed with the top layer of the earth.
Advantageous for raspberries is the proximity to those plants that do not harm it, but, on the contrary, bring benefits.
- Good neighbors are:
- apple tree, as it protects from scab and gray rot;
- pear - protects against fungal infections and harmful insects;
- dill - helps to increase the yield of raspberry berries 2-3 times.
- Bad neighbors include:
- cherries and sea buckthorn, because they oppress the raspberry bushes;
- currants, because raspberries oppress it;
- wild strawberries that have the same diseases and pests.
In summer raspberries, two-year-old shoots bear fruit, in the remontant, both young and two-year-old shoots. After harvesting, the biennial branches dry. But the bush continues to grow. On last year's shoots, new branches of substitution grow, which then bear fruit. After 5-6 years, the growth of young shoots is weakening, fruiting is falling. Different varieties of bushes have different life expectancies. On average, raspberries live from 6 to 12 years, which is also affected by the quality of care.
The best methods and schemes for planting seedlings
There are several ways to plant raspberry seedlings:
- bush, in which bushes are planted in separate pits, the distance between them is 1–1.5 m;
- tape or trench: they dig trenches 35–40 cm deep and 40–50 cm wide, row spacing is 1.5–2 m, and the distance between individual bushes in the garden is 50–70 cm, suitable for large plantings;
- in capacity: with a lack of space on the site, raspberry seedlings are planted in boxes or pots measuring 50 × 50 cm;
- in car tires: the tire is immersed in a hole dug for it, the inner space is covered with soil mixed with humus, where the plant is planted, the method prevents the growth of bushes.
How to plant raspberries in various ways
In the summer months, raspberries are planted in two ways: green basal offspring, or "nettles", and seedlings in containers. Basal offspring are young shoots growing near the mother bush. They are transplanted at the beginning of June, at the stage of “nettle”, or at the end of August, when it is not so hot, and the shoots have grown and strengthened.
Important! Trenches and rows with holes are best located from north to south. Thus, the raspberry will be illuminated all day by the sun: the first half of the day is on the east side, and the second half - on the west side.
How to transplant root cuttings:
- Choose the strongest of all the offspring, but not the largest, its thickness should not exceed 1 cm.
- Carefully dig it up from all sides and carefully separate the pruner or shovel from the uterine root, being careful not to damage it. The resulting deepening should immediately be sprinkled with earth so that the old root does not dry out.
- If the shoot is higher than 25 cm, it should be shortened, leaving 4-5 leaves on it. This will help the root put more power on rooting.
- The prepared stalk must be immediately planted in a permanent place in the prepared hole with fertilized soil.
- The hole must be abundantly watered. When water is absorbed, it must be covered with earth, but so that the root neck of the seedling remains at ground level.
- From above it is desirable to cover the earth with mulch so that moisture does not evaporate quickly.
Seedlings in containers do not require special preparation. They should have strong stems, beautiful healthy leaves and a well-developed root system, which braided the entire earthen lump. Immediately before planting, you can dip the roots with a lump for a couple of seconds in water, and then put them in holes or trenches, fill up, water and mulch the soil. The advantage of planting material with a closed root system is that it can be planted throughout the summer, it quickly takes root and overtakes spring plantings in growth.
The best summer time for planting is a cloudy or rainy day.. If the summer is hot, then the young raspberry should be lowered to protect against burns. You can use a shading fine mesh or other covering material for this. After 2-3 weeks, when the sprouts take root, the shelter can be removed.
Key Care Features
After planting in summer, raspberry bushes should be especially carefully looked after until they are completely rooted. Then, standard care measures are applied to them: watering, loosening, fertilizing and pruning.
Watering and fertilizer
At first, the new raspberry needs daily moisture control and watering if the topsoil dries quickly. This is especially true in hot summer weather. After rooting (after 15–20 days), watering is reduced to once a week or more often, depending on weather conditions. Watering should be quite plentiful, but not too much. Waterlogging for raspberries is no less dangerous than drought. It is advisable to water it not with cold water, but with standing and heated in the sun. The recommended irrigation method is drip irrigation.
If the soil was sufficiently fertilized before planting, then the first two years there is no need for fertilizing. Phosphorus and potassium introduced during planting will be enough for the whole time of using bushes. And plants need nitrogen and organic fertilizers annually.
The fertilizer scheme may be as follows:
- in spring, at the beginning of the growing season - a solution of mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20) together with urea or nitrate;
- in the fall, after harvest - humus with nitrate or urea.
Shaping and pruning bushes
If you ignore this agricultural technique, then the bushes will be very thickened, the branches are weak, the berries are small. In addition, dense bushes are poorly lit by the sun, which is a favorable condition for the development of fungal diseases.
Important! In repair raspberries during autumn pruning, it is recommended to remove absolutely all the stems to the very root. Young spring shoots will quickly grow and yield a plentiful harvest at the end of summer.
To form a strong, thickened and productive bush, it must be cut in spring, summer and autumn:
- in early spring prune last year's shoots so that they do not exceed a height of 1.5 m, leave 10-15 of the strongest branches on 1 m², and the rest, frozen and weak, should be removed;
- in the fall remove the offspring of biennial shoots and annual damaged branches, without leaving hemp;
- at the beginning of summer remove unwanted overgrowth.
Hardening of the soil and the spread of weeds prevent the flow of air to the roots of the culture and inhibit the vital activity of soil microorganisms. Because of this, the growth and development of raspberry shoots are inhibited, therefore loosening should be timely, without delay.
Experienced gardeners recommend the first weeding as early as possible in the spring. Then it is performed after each watering and rain to destroy the earth crust. The last time this work is carried out in the fall, in preparation for wintering. In the aisles, the earth loosens deeper - by 10-15 cm, in the row between the bushes only 5-8 cm, trying not to touch the surface roots.
Where raspberry grows best: in the shade or in the sun
Raspberries, especially the remont, love open sunny places. Even slight but prolonged shading can slow fruiting and reduce the quantity and quality of the crop. The choice of a sunny place is of great importance in the northern and central regions when growing late raspberry varieties.
Did you know? Raspberry berries are very useful for pregnant women. They contain a lot of folic acid and iron, necessary for the female body and the proper formation of the fetus.
But recently the sun has become very hot, so in the southern regions raspberry trees have to be shaded so that leaves and berries are not burnt. To do this, in the summer, during the period of special activity of the sun, a thin shading net or other material is thrown on the bushes. You can plant tall crops, such as sunflowers and corn, to create shade along the raspberry. At the beginning of the growing season, they are small and do not block the sun, and in the middle of summer they can protect raspberries from sunburn.
How to care for raspberries during flowering and fruiting
During flowering and fruiting, raspberry plants need special attention. Such care includes:
- frequent and plentiful watering: the ground should get wet to a depth of 40 cm, along the entire length of the raspberry root, in extreme heat you may need daily and, possibly, 2-time moistening;
- sunburn protection by artificial shading;
- ban on chemical treatment of bushes from diseases and pests, so that the fruits do not absorb toxins.
Diseases and Pests
From raspberry diseases and pests, the yield of berries decreases by 30–40%. And if you ignore the methods of prevention and treatment, you can completely lose it. To protect the raspberry, a whole preventive complex should be used, including the following methods:
- proper agricultural practices: timely watering, top dressing, cultivation, weeding and pruning - these measures strengthen the immunity of plants;
- mechanical techniques: pruning and removal of dry, damaged and infected shoots, destruction of dry leaves, manual collection of insects and their larvae, setting traps;
- treatment Bordeaux liquid and insecticides, twice a season.
Diseases affecting raspberry bushes:
- fungal (anthracnose, brown, white and gray spotting) - treatment with fungicides (Nitrofen, Ridomil, Bordeaux fluid);
- viral (mosaic, curliness, root cancer, chlorosis) - there is no cure, the affected plants are completely uprooted and burned.
Insects harmful to raspberries include: raspberry beetle, raspberry stem fly, weevil, moths, cicadas, ticks. You can deal with them by treating the bushes with special insectoacaricides, together with fungicides.
What year does raspberry bear fruit?
For summer varieties of raspberries, fruiting is characteristic only on two-year-old shoots. Fruit-bearing buds do not form on young shoots of substitution formed this year. Only in the second summer do they produce crops according to the variety: early - in June, late - in July.
Repair raspberries develop differently. Fruitful buds are already formed on the shoots that appeared in the spring of this year. By autumn, sweet berries will ripen on them. After fruiting, the annual shoot does not dry out. Having wintered, he bears fruit again, but already at the beginning of summer. With proper care, the berries ripen on it again in late summer and early autumn. It turns out that in two years 3 crops can be harvested from one stem.
Many gardeners practice this method: in autumn or early spring, they cut completely all the branches of the repairing variety to the root. In this case, only one crop is formed on the annual shoots, autumn, but very plentiful.
Harvesting and storage
A month after the end of flowering, fruiting begins. In summer varieties, it stretches for 3-4 weeks, and in repair varieties - even longer. Berries must be picked every two days in dry weather. Berries should not be wet from dew or rain, otherwise they will quickly deteriorate.
Did you know? From a botanical point of view, raspberries are not berries. This is a multi-shoot, i.e., a fruit on which there are many small berries with seeds, grown together.
Harvest must be done in a timely manner, as the berries ripen.If they overripe, they will become not tasty, perishable and not transportable. For quick consumption, the berries are removed completely ripe. If you have to transport, it is better to collect slightly unripe fruits with the stalks and neatly stack them in shallow boxes with a capacity of up to 2 kg. So they can easily carry the transportation and will be able to stay safe and sound longer.
Juicy and soft berries cannot be stored for long. In a cool place they lie, not spoiling, no longer than 5 days. Then they will urgently need to be processed for jam or frozen.
To prepare raspberries for winter, in autumn you need to do the following:
- remove the old layer of mulch and burn it;
- dig the earth to a depth of 10 cm;
- water and feed liberally before winter;
- cut off dry branches, shorten young ones to 1–1.5 m, cut absolutely all shoots under the root of remont raspberries;
- bend the branches lower to the ground and cover with spruce branches or covering material.
Is it possible to plant different raspberry varieties nearby
With the neighboring planting of different varieties of raspberries, pollination will occur, but only at the seed level, and bushes and berries will not lose their varietal characteristics. But still it is undesirable to plant them nearby. Almost all raspberry varieties produce root shoots that can germinate at a distance of about 3 m from the mother bush. After a couple of years, the root processes are intertwined. The result is a mixed raspberry, and some varieties are simply lost.
The only exception is black raspberries. She does not give growth, so it can be planted next to any other variety.
How old can raspberries grow in one place?
It is not worth growing long raspberry bushes in one place for several reasons:
- the root system becomes obsolete;
- diseases and pests inherent in the culture accumulate in the soil;
- Raspberry roots release toxic substances to suppress neighboring plants; after 8–9 years, they begin to inhibit their own culture.
Experts advise keeping raspberries in one area for no longer than 5 years. After this period, fruiting falls, and then completely stops
Having discussed all the nuances of planting raspberries and caring for it, we can conclude that in the summer you can plant cuttings, but only urgently. Transplantation should only be done in cloudy weather. You should also not plant raspberries en masse, but only a few plants.