How to water raspberries: types, methods, depth, frequency
Raspberry is one of the most beloved garden crops among summer residents; however, it is important to provide good care for the bush to a plentiful harvest of this berry, in particular, to properly organize the irrigation system. For this, the gardener must know how the needs of the plant for moistening the soil change depending on the growing season, what factors affect the intensity of irrigation, how to properly balance the amount of moisture and keep it in the ground in order to save water consumption, etc. Let's try to find answers to these and many other questions.
The basic rules of watering raspberries
Seasonality is the first criterion that is important to consider when choosing a raspberry irrigation regime.
Also note that irrigation water should not be too hard and have a temperature significantly different from the ambient temperature. It is best to use the lower (root) type of watering and carry out this procedure in the evening or in the early morning, until the moment when the sun begins to intensively illuminate the area.
Important! The general rule is as follows: the plant needs maximum hydration immediately before entering the flowering phase and then at the time of the crop formation.
In the spring
Spring is the time of plant awakening and the formation of young shoots, on which fruit formation will take place. However, during intensive snowmelt, raspberries are not needed for humidification, so the gardener can devote the beginning of a new season to the organization of the irrigation system, and not to watering itself.
AND only in the southern regions, where intensive growth of bushes begins already in late April - early May, at this time it is time to start moderate watering. At first, the water flow can be 0.5–1 l of water per bush, and then, as the soil warms and dries up, this indicator gradually increases to 2-3 l.
In the middle lane of the European part of the Russian Federation and more northern regions, raspberry watering begins with the beginning of summer and continues until the bushes begin to bloom. Then a short break should be made, allowing the plant to form an ovary, and then, as the fruit is formed, carry out regular, but not too frequent soil moisture.
Did you know? The legend connects the beginning of raspberry cultivation in Muscovy with the name of Yuri Dolgoruky - the son of Vladimir Monomakh and Prince Rostov-Suzdal, who is considered the founder of the modern capital of the Russian state.
By the middle of summer, when the shrub is in the final phase of berry formation, watering the plant less often, only with strong drying of the soil, otherwise the fruits ripen unsweetened and will quickly deteriorate. In addition, waterlogging during this period is fraught with the development of fungal infections on the berries, in particular, gray rot.
After the bush has spawned, the purpose of watering is to maintain the depleted forces of the plant, but the water flow at this time should be moderate.
Video: Watering berry crops
Toward the end of summer and the beginning of autumn, watering should be gradually minimized. During this period, it is impossible to create favorable conditions for the plant to form new shoots, since such a green mass does not have time to form, freezes in the winter and only takes away from the bush the forces it needs to prepare for the onset of frost.
However, in late autumn, immediately before sheltering raspberries for the winter, the bushes need to be watered once and plentifully. This procedure will prevent the freezing of the root system, the probability of which in dry land increases sharply.
Important! The cooler the weather, the less water should be watered.This rule applies even when the summer has turned out to be cold, but not rainy.
What does the watering regime depend on
The correct choice of the raspberryberry moistening regimen depends not only on the season, but also on many other factors. In particular, the following are important:
- variety (regular or remontant, early or late ripening varieties, degree of drought tolerance, etc.);
- climatic conditions (duration of summer, average temperatures and amount of snow in winter, regularity of precipitation, strength and intensity of wind);
- shrub age (a young plant needs more moisture to gain strength);
- current weather situation, etc.
Early ripe varieties berries should be watered intensively and approximately evenly from late spring to mid summer. Varieties with a medium ripening period moistened in two stages - at the beginning and end of the watering period of early raspberries. As for late grades, then their watering is carried out throughout the season from the last month of spring until the fall (adjusted for weather).
The main botanical feature of raspberries is that this plant forms a superficial root system. However, in an adult shrub, the roots gradually go deeper into the soil. As a result, raspberries become much less dependent on precipitation and irrigation intensity, as well as on accidental damage to garden tools during weeding and loosening, freezing in winter, etc.
STRUCTURE OF THE ROSPBAR BUSH AND SEPARATE PLANT ORGANS: 1 - offspring; 2 - subordinate roots; 3 - kidneys on the rhizome and root; 4 - escape substitution; 5 - fruit bearing stem; 6 - rhizome; 7 - fouling roots; 8- side branch; 9 - a bud; 10 - a flower; 11-knot; 12 - internode; 13 - sheet; 14 - the main kidney; 15 - additional kidney; 16 - core; 17 - wood; 18 - bark; 19 - spikes; 20 - covering scales; 21 - germinal leaves; 22 - germinal inflorescence; 23 - axillary kidney
In order to ensure the correct formation of roots, young bushes must constantly be in a humid environment. But, on the other hand, the plant suffers from waterlogging as hard as drought. In the absence of rains, the frequency of watering should not exceed twice a week, and if the days are not too dry, the intervals between procedures can be increased.
Important! Raspberries, like garden trees, need to be watered rarely, but abundantly. This condition can be called the "golden rule" of caring for the fruit shrub.
Natural deepening of the roots of the shrub can occur only if the soil is moistened not only at the surface, but also in the direction of movement of the root processes down. Therefore, it is considered optimal saturate the soil in raspberries to a depth of at least 30 cm. Usually such watering involves the use of approximately 20-30 liters of water per square meter the area of the garden.
Watering a raspberry from a watering can, as our ancestors did, is a time-consuming and irrational option. You can resort to it if only a few fruit bushes are planted on the site. But even with time they grow so densely that physically transferring the entire amount of irrigation water is quite difficult.
In addition, the surface root system of raspberries is very sensitive to temperature changes, therefore cold water can not be watered. All this leads to the fact that the raspberry humidification system must be automated.
Did you know? In addition to red and yellow, there is also black raspberry. However, purple berries are considered the rarest, which were bred at the end of the 19th century in Geneva by crossing red and black berries.
Drip irrigation is a modern irrigation system, which is unparalleled both in terms of minimizing the labor required to care for beds, and in terms of economical water consumption.The method involves holding special ribbons in rows between the bushes, in each of which tiny holes are provided at a certain distance from each other. By means of simple docking devices, the tapes are connected to the water supply, as a result, the water entering them through droppers slowly and evenly saturates the soil at precisely those points where it is necessary.
The only drawback of the method is the need to purchase special equipment for its arrangement, as well as the cost of some effort and creativity for the assembly and installation of the system. It should be noted that modern drip irrigation systems are not too expensive and the water saving they provide allows you to recoup the costs incurred. Therefore, even on small raspberries, the organization of such irrigation makes sense.
The above is true, provided that the summer resident always has access to a centralized water supply. In the absence of organized water supply, when the gardener is forced to constantly or periodically collect rainwater for irrigationAutomated irrigation of raspberry trees should be organized by more complex methods, for example, trench or aryky.
Video: Drip watering of repair raspberries
The essence of the trench method is that, on the one hand, irrigation water is kept around the shrub for as long as possible, and does not spread over the entire area, on the other hand, to prevent damage to the roots of the plant by the strong pressure of the water, which usually gives the use of a hose.
To solve these two problems, raspberries are fenced around the perimeter with a small fence, after which, between rows or along the fence (depending on the area of the plot and the number of plants planted on it), trenches are dug with a depth of about 10-15 cm, raking the soil removed from them to the bushes. As a result close to each bush should be "own" irrigation canal. Then, the collected water is carefully poured into the trenches or laid at the base of the irrigation hose.
The aryky method of watering raspberries is another name for the trench. Its essence consists in the same creation of grooves surrounding the bushes for the accumulation of water in them.
The advantage of this method over conventional watering from a hose is also that it allows you to provide the most efficient use of rainwater, which is especially important in areas where water supply is absent or is associated with constant interruptions.
Did you know? Aryk is a term used in the languages of the peoples of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan), as well as some peoples of the Caucasus. In these hot and arid regions, the irrigation form of irrigation has been used by farmers since ancient times and, according to some reports, has been showing its effectiveness for at least three millennia.
You can water raspberries from a hose in two ways - under the root or along the leaves (by sprinkling). The first method is inconvenient in that it often leads to washing away the roots, therefore it is better not to resort to it without arranging trenches or irrigation ditches. Sprinkling also has its drawbacks. In general, raspberries gratefully respond to leaf moisture, but during flowering and fruiting, this way you can easily damage the future crop.
Besides, sprinkling involves water consumption that is ten times higher than irrigation using a drip system, and modern agricultural science considers this wasteful attitude to natural resources to be absolutely not justified. In fact, during such irrigation, not only the plants themselves are moistened, but the entire area around them.
With the general feeling of abundantly watered beds, in reality the amount of water that “gets” the root system of each particular bush,may be minimal and completely insufficient for the normal development of culture. Therefore, you should try to refuse to moisten garden plants by spraying water from a hose
DIY drip irrigation
Today in a specialized store you can find everything you need in order to make a high-quality drip irrigation system in your own summer cottage without any problems and without resorting to the help of specialists.
Drop watering is a kind of constructorassembled from special tapes interconnected by docking devices (corners, tees, etc.). On the one hand, they are connected to the storage tank or directly to the source of centralized water supply, on the other hand, they are clamped with special plugs.In the process of acquiring equipment in the first place you must pay attention to the choice of tape, since all other details are already selected for it. On sale you can find a wide assortment of irrigation tapes of different price categories. On the other hand, it does not make sense to buy the cheapest tapes either: in the process of their operation, because of the rupture of one dropper, one has to change the entire element of the system.
For a small summer cottage there is no need to dwell on the most expensive option, since with proper operation and budget material it will last for several seasons, but you should not count on longer periods of use
In addition to the price, tapes differ depending on the distance at which irrigation holes (droppers) are distributed along their length. This step usually varies between 10-30 cm. Before buying, you must carefully examine your raspberry, measure the average distance between the bushes and give preference to such a tape, which will provide the most accurate water supply under each plant.
Arrangement of drip irrigation in a small summer cottage in its essence resembles the assembly of a children's designer. According to the scheme outlined in advance the ribbons should be laid out between the plants, making sure that the droppers are in front of each bush. Then the free ends of the tapes are fixed with plugs, and the ends into which the water will flow are connected into one chain using pre-purchased docking parts.
The common hose, to which all the tapes are ultimately connected, is connected to the water storage tank or to the outlet of the water pipe. When using the tank, it is important to install it at a small elevation relative to the surface of the earth so that water can flow into the tapes by gravity. The standard tank installation level is 1.5–2 m above the bed.
Using the drip irrigation system is very simple, and with it you can water raspberries at any time of the day or even under the scorching sun. However, in order for the mechanism to last longer, it is necessary to adhere to the following standard rules:
- at the entrance to the system, it is advisable to install a filter so that particles of dirt, rust and other impurities do not block the exit of water from the droppers;
- the water pressure in the tapes should be strictly regulated and not exceed the maximum values set by the manufacturer. It is even better to install it one and a half times less than the permissible limit (the longer the tape and the more often the holes for droppers, the greater the pressure can be);
- in no case should you independently increase the irrigation holes in the tapes to reduce water pressure, such an intervention in the system will very quickly disable it;
- drip irrigation tapes need to be laid out on an absolutely flat horizontal section, otherwise it will not be possible to evenly moisten the soil (if the plot has a slope, you must first arrange the beds in tiers and then distribute the irrigation tapes to them using special connections);
- as droppers become clogged, they should be cleaned, blown or rinsed;
- in the fall, the irrigation system must be disassembled and cleaned, and in the spring installed again, while the equipment must be stored in a dry and carefully folded form.
Did you know? Used by Russian agronomists, the term "remontance" comes from the French "remontant" - to rise up. In European terminology, two definitions apply to plants that produce several crops: fall-bearing (synonym - autumn-fruiting), that is, fruiting in the fall, or everbearing, that is, bearing fruit all the time.
Watering Repairing Raspberries
When buying raspberries, it is very important to clarify whether the variety is regular or remodeling. In the latter case, the bush is able to form fruits on both biennial and annual shoots, which from a practical point of view means obtaining not one but two crops from such a plant during the season. True, the quantity and quality of such a crop is usually lower than that of ordinary varieties.
The main feature of watering remont raspberry is determined by the presence of two successive phases of fruiting in a plant, for each of which it is necessary to provide standard conditions that apply to ordinary raspberries only once per season. These rules come down to the fact that the maximum watering of the plant is carried out until the beginning of flowering, followed by a gradual decrease in the intensity of moisture, and after the bush has spawned, it only needs to be slightly strengthened to prevent drying out.
In practice, the irrigation regime of maintenance raspberries is reduced to the introduction of one additional stage of enhanced irrigation, which, depending on the climatic zone, may occur at the beginning, middle or end of August
How to water raspberries with urea solution in spring
Fertilizers cannot be applied to dry soil: the nutrients contained in them cannot be absorbed by the plant, but the root system may well get a chemical burn. Therefore, the raspberry feeding scheme is inextricably linked with watering.
Traditionally, in the spring time, all plants primarily need nitrogen. It is this mineral that provides the active growth of green mass, on which buds, flowers, ovaries and fruits will subsequently form.
therefore In spring, experienced gardeners combine raspberry irrigation with plant dressing with urea (urea). This fertilizer can be applied to the bed and in a dry form, but this must be done even at the stage of snow melting, until the kidneys wake up. If the time is missed, liquid dressing is used: the drug should be diluted in a concentration of 20-30 g per 10 liters of water, carefully pour the pre-moistened bed with the resulting solution or fill the trenches with it so that about 3 liters of fertilizer is distributed per square meter.
As soon as the solution is absorbed, the raspberry should be abundantly poured with plain water again: firstly, it will protect the roots from burns, and secondly, urea decomposes very quickly on the soil surface
As an equivalent substitute for urea during spring irrigation of raspberry, you can use another nitrogen fertilizer - ammonium nitrate. This drug is used in the same way as urea, but it is permissible to increase the concentration of the working solution by 15–20%. Some gardeners recommend the use of ammonium nitrate in a concentration lower than urea. Therefore, in order not to be mistaken, it is better to proceed from the equivalence of these fertilizers.
Did you know? About every second raspberry bush from all that is grown in the world grows in Russia, however, Poland occupies a leading position in the volume of production and export of this berry. Each year, this country supplies about 100 thousand tons of raspberries to the world market, about the same is consumed domestically.
In addition, nitrogen can be used as part of complex fertilizers, for example, nitroammofoski. The concentration of the working solution is 30–40 g per 10 liters of water, the fertilizer consumption is standard.
How to keep moisture after watering
Experienced gardeners are well aware that effective irrigation is determined not so much by the total amount of water poured into the beds, but by the competent organization of the retention of moisture in the soil. Otherwise, you can water the site as often as possible, while the land will remain dry.
There are two ways to keep the soil moist - the traditional "grandfather" and the more modern.
The first method involves mandatory loosening of the earth around the shrub after each watering. The purpose of this procedure is to prevent the formation of a dense crust on the surface of the bed, through which no air flows to the roots, and the earth turns into a dense and dry lump for several hours. This method has a number of disadvantages.
First of all, loosening is a very time-consuming procedure and time-consuming. It should be carried out not immediately after watering, but several hours later (ideally in the morning, if the bed was watered in the evening) so that the water has time to soak into the ground, since it is impossible to “fluff” the viscous dirt. In addition, cultivation should be carried out after unplanned irrigation in the form of rain, which significantly adds to the amount of work in the garden.
Do not forget that raspberries are a rather prickly bush.. The process of loosening the soil around each plant turns into an activity not very pleasant, especially when you consider the proximity of the root system of the culture to the surface of the earth. This requires the gardener to be more careful when working with the cultivator, otherwise manipulating the soil will do more harm to the shrub than good.
Important! The ideal organization of wetting raspberries is to combine drip irrigation with mulching the soil. At the same time, tapes with droppers should be placed on top of the mulch layer, and in this case, optimal moisture and “composting” of the lower layer of the organic shelter is ensured.
It should be noted that the drip irrigation system eliminates the need for the gardener to loosen the soil after irrigation, since it does not imply an intensive flow of water and the formation of huge puddles around the bush, which subsequently lead to the formation of a dense crust.
However the presence of droppers does not solve the problem of weeds, which must be combated, otherwise a good harvest can not be expected. Moreover, the balanced and uniform soil moisture provided through the use of a drip system stimulates the very intensive development of weed grass, which feels great under such favorable conditions.
For this reason, it is much more correct to use the mulching method to retain moisture in the soil. Sheltering the earth around the bushes with a dense layer of organics can solve several problems at once:
- prevent the formation of a crust on the surface of the earth without the need for loosening;
- to prevent weed germination (the powerful root shoot that the raspberry bush gives will easily break its way through a layer of mulch, but weed grass will not cope with this task);
- without additional efforts, enrich the bed with humus (the lower layer of mulch, which constantly remains moist, rots quite quickly, and earthworms complete the process, as a result of raspberries constantly receiving high-quality organic top dressing. Moreover, unlike manure, this fertilizer will never harm the roots and will not will lead to a saturation of the soil with nitrogen);
- provide raspberries with ready-made shelter for the winter, protecting the roots from freezing, but at the same time allowing air to pass through well and preventing them from overheating.
As a mulch, you can use peat or decayed conifer needles (such a substrate is easy to collect during a walk through the forest). The advantages of this material are that and peat and needles have the property of strongly acidifying the soil, while for raspberries it suits perfectly. However, if the soil was originally acidic, you can cover the ground around the bushes with sawdust or freshly cut grass.
Raspberry is a rather unpretentious culture, and therefore even the summer residents who are not ready to devote too much time and energy to their cultivation can master it. Among the measures that must be provided to obtain a good harvest of berries, the central place is taken by the correct watering. By organizing a modern drip irrigation system in the garden where fruit bushes are planted and combining it with mulching the soil, you can solve the problem of plant hydration once for the whole season, after which it remains only to turn on and off the water supply from time to time without spending on caring for raspberries no extra effort.