How to grow and propagate common raspberries from cuttings, root shoots?
Raspberry is not only a berry that is tasty and rich in useful substances, but also a favorite of all gardeners, since reproduction and caring for a plant is not difficult. In order to acquire an impressive size raspberry plantation, you will need only one stalk. How to become the owner of your own raspberry garden, read on.
How to propagate raspberries at home?
Despite the simplicity of such an activity, it is worth knowing some nuances of how to propagate raspberries correctly at home, namely:
- Do not be afraid to experiment by resorting to different breeding methods and at different times.
- Decide on the purpose of growing: for your own needs or for further implementation in the market.
- Explore Varietal Varieties and select the most suitable and productive varieties for your region. Focus on criteria such as fertility, taste and size of berries, exacting care, period and time of fruiting, resistance to disease and pest attacks.
- Approach the site selection correctly: It should be lit with well-drained soil. The optimum temperature for growing crops is + 22 ... + 30 ° C. The sites should not be low, swampy, as the berry culture does not tolerate stagnation of water. Taking these factors into account will help not only to get a raspberry plantation, but also to get a good harvest.
- When landing, it is worth observing the distance: 2 m between planting pits, and approximately 0.75 m between rows.
- So that the plant quickly and efficiently takes root, put compost on the bottom of the hole, then fertile soil and wood ash.
- Stock up on the necessary tools: shovel, pruner, knife, bags. If you are going to cut the cuttings for winter storage, then also prepare the amount of sand, peat or sawdust you need, and the containers in which the cuttings will be stored. For immediate planting, you will need containers filled with fertile soil and a film for covering, in order to create a greenhouse effect.
- Choose the best breeding method, focusing on varietal preferences and specifics, the quality of planting material and environmental conditions. Also take into account the time of year.
Did you know? Raspberry roots can reach 10 years of age, while their stems live only 1 year: the old stem dies and a new one grows.
There is no single answer to the question of what season is the best for raspberry propagation, since the process can be carried out in spring, summer and autumn. In this case, one should take into account which methods are optimal for reproduction in a particular season.
So, spring propagation should be carried out before the vegetation period begins, resorting to the seed method, using the methods of offspring, dividing the bush, lateral, root or green cuttings.
In summer, raspberries are advised to plant by the method of green cuttings (young shoots). In autumn, experienced gardeners recommend resorting to cuttings of adult bushes, or their division
Features and Benefits
Gardeners have different approaches to the propagation of raspberries: some prefer spring planting, while others resort to summer or autumn, choosing convenient methods for themselves and effective for plants. In many ways, the timing and planting methods depend on the plant variety and climatic conditions in the region.
Root cuttings are parts of roots with lateral branches that are capable of further growth separately from the main rhizome. The thickness of such lateral roots should be more than 2 mm, and better - more than 5 mm, and length - 10-15 cm, leaving 1-2 kidneys.
Important! Despite the many ways of planting raspberries and its ability to reproduce at any time of the year, it is still optimal to plant a crop in the spring, because at this time it is most resistant to stress.
To get the root cuttings, you need to dig the soil at a distance of 40 cm from the center of the bush. The lateral branches are carefully excavated, separated from the rhizome and pulled out, trying to keep all the roots as small as possible.
If the cuttings are cut in the spring, then they are laid in grooves previously prepared in the fertile loose soil5–10 cm deep. Cuttings are folded flat and watered abundantly. It is recommended to cover the landing with a film to create a greenhouse effect and maintain a humidity of 90–92%. The film is removed when green sprouts appear on the cuttings.
Cuttings separated from the rhizome in the fall are sent for winter storage. They must be bundled and placed in a trench about 15 cm deep. From above, planting material is covered with fallen leaves or sawdust. Cuttings can be stored in the cellar by placing them in containers with sand, soil or foliage.
The optimum storage temperature is 0 ... + 4 ° C. If the temperature drops below - the material for planting will freeze and lose viability; at higher temperatures, the cuttings will start to sprout green sprouts ahead of time. Therefore, low and high temperatures should be avoided. Viable cuttings are planted in the spring according to the above scheme.
Important! 60-80% of the root stalks of raspberries take root.
Experienced gardeners assure that it is better to cuttings in the autumn period, until mid-September, since at this time a large amount of planting material will form on the bushes, vegetation processes end, which guarantees better rooting. The optimal age of the mother plant is 3-4 g.
Propagating raspberries in this way is simple and convenient, no special knowledge and skills are needed, and the high survival rate of seedlings will quickly become the owner of a raspberry plantation. The method is most effective for breeding repairing varieties of raspberries.
Video: Raspberry propagation by root cuttings
Green cuttings are cut in the summer, choosing cloudy days for this. They are small root processes on which several leaves appeared. To cut such planting material, you need to use a knife or secateurs, the cut itself is carried out at 4-5 cm below the soil level.
The length of each stalk should be 7–10 cm, and it should have 2–4 buds, and a cut angle of 45 °. On each handle several longitudinal incisions are made, 2-3 cm long, at an approximate distance of 3-4 mm from each other. To plant rooting material well, quickly and efficiently rooted, it is recommended to place it for 10-12 hours in a solution with a growth regulator. You can use "Kornevin." The solution is prepared immediately before placing the planting material in it, in accordance with the recommendations specified in the instructions.
Important! Make sure that the temperature of the solution does not fall below + 18 ° C, as this is fraught with the fact that the planting material does not take root.
Then you can start planting: the seedlings are placed in pre-prepared grooves or trenches, the depth of which is not more than 10 cm, observing a distance of 7-10 cm.It is better to plant in the greenhouse, since it will occur in late summer, and therefore there comes a period of cold weather. If you have planted on open ground, be sure to cover the seedlings with a film to create greenhouse conditions and regularly water it, and in winter organize protection from frost and drafts.
Plants that were planted in this way in the spring will delight the gardener with a crop the very next year. This method is one of the most popular among gardeners. The secret is in simplicity and the opportunity to enjoy a fragrant berry the very next year.Cuttings should take root after 1 month, but on condition that a temperature of + 22 ... + 25 ° C and high humidity are observed.
It is important to resort to this method in the fall, when the plant discards the foliage, and its stems become brown, that is, lignified. The optimal time is September - mid-October.
Did you know? Ancient people considered raspberries a symbol of kindness.
Lignified offspring are formed on the root system from the accessory kidneys. As a planting material, a shoot is used, which is located at a distance of 30 cm from the mother bush. They are dug up, trying to keep as many roots 12-15 cm long as possible.
Do not use shoots for planting, at the formation of which you found swelling: such a seedling is damaged by stem gall midge. Planting material with the presence of blue spots on the root system should also be disposed of: it is affected by purple spotting. Root cancer is detected with the naked eye, respectively, seedlings are not suitable for reproduction.
The selected healthy shoots are transplanted to a previously prepared new site. If leaves are preserved on the seedlings, be sure to remove them before planting.
The advantage of the method is a high percentage of survival rate (70–90%), and, accordingly, high productivity. You can also be sure that you planted exclusively healthy plants.
Did you know? Turkey is considered the homeland of raspberries.
Green root offspring
The method is relevant in the spring. It is carried out in the following way:
- Inspect the tops of the mother raspberry bushes to make sure the crop is healthy. If the tops have a withered oppressed appearance, then the bush is struck by a raspberry fly, and it is impossible to dig up its offspring.
- At a distance of 35–45 mm from a healthy bush, dig a shoot 15–25 cm long. Since the active period of vegetation has already begun, offspring need to be dug up with a lump of earth.
- Pre-prepare the planting holes, the depth of which will allow the roots of the seedlings to freely accommodate. Cover the hole with compost and humus, with the addition of 1 tbsp. l ash from wood.
- After planting, mulch the soil.
The advantage of the method is the ability to quickly and without time-consuming to obtain a large number of seedlings that quickly and efficiently root (almost 100% survival rate). Next year you will be harvesting from a new site. This is the easiest way to propagate raspberries.When propagating raspberries with green cuttings, the soil should not dry out during the rooting period.
The method does not always live up to the expectations of the gardener, so it is worth considering that the propagation of raspberries by apical layers is effective when it comes to purple and aronia plant varieties.
Important! To resort to the method is relevant in late summer - early fall. At this time, the raspberry shoots begin to tip the tops to the ground. The tops themselves resemble loops with fine foliage. This suggests that they are ready to root.
In order for rooting to be effective, apical offspring must be placed on fertile soil, not separating from the uterine shoot, that is, press the tip of the shoot to the ground. Rooted cuttings can be separated and transplanted to a new place in autumn or spring, depending on the degree of development of their root system.
This method contributes to the rapid and high-quality reproduction of aronia and purple raspberries. There is no need to take care of creating greenhouse conditions or incur time and financial costs.
Digging and transplanting the apical layering is necessary with a lump of earth
Dividing the bush
The method is most suitable for lazy gardeners, because the methodology for its implementation is to divide the bush of your favorite raspberry variety into several smaller bushes. As for the culture itself, it is recommended to breed with this method valuable varieties that do not give a large number of offspring.
The algorithm for propagating raspberries by dividing the bush consists of the following steps:
- Digging up a division for raspberry bush. The ideal time for manipulation is autumn.
- The division of the bush into several parts is 2–5, it all depends on its size, but the separated bushes should have 2-3 young shoots.
- Immediate transplantation to a fixed location in pre-prepared wells.
- Pruning shoots to the level of 2-3 live buds.
- Care for transplanted bushes.
By dividing the bush, adult plants with a developed root system can be propagated
Growing raspberries from seeds
Perhaps the most time-consuming and difficult way to breed raspberries, the success of which can not be sure even the most experienced gardener. Mostly breeders resort to it.
Important! Amateur gardeners are unlikely to be able to grow from the seedlings the same variety from which the seeds were taken from the berries, but you can grow excellent shrubs for hedges.
The method of breeding raspberries from seeds consists of the following steps:
- The collection of the most ripe and large berries.
- Grinding berries to obtain a juice smoothie.
- Place the raspberry mixture in water and drain the floating particles. It is necessary to merge until the seeds settle in clean water.
- Strain the seeds through a sieve to get rid of the water.
- Drying the seeds on dry paper or cloth.
- Preparation of seeds for sowing: keeping in water throughout the day. Then the seeds are mixed with wet sand and placed in kapron bags, thus creating greenhouse conditions.
- The bags should be covered with sphagnum or wet sawdust and kept for 3 months in the cellar or in the refrigerator, placed on the lower shelf.
- Sowing seeds in specially prepared boxes that are filled with finely sifted compacted substrate. 5 mm deep furrows are made in the substrate, in which seeds are placed directly with bags and finely sprinkled with sifted peat or sand.
- Covering containers with raspberry seeds sown with glass or film and placing them in a warm (+ 20 ... + 22 ° C) well-lit place in which drafts do not form.
Raspberry seeds do not germinate well, so they need presowing preparation, stratification
50% seedlings of raspberries are a great success. Basically, this indicator is 5-10%. Picking into separate containers can be carried out after seedlings reach 10 cm in length. Only after 2 years you will receive in this way full-fledged seedlings that are ready for planting in a permanent place, but this does not mean that varietal qualities will be preserved.
Important! Out of a thousand seedlings, only 1-2 will outperform the parent variety.
Propagation of raspberries is not a difficult process, the main thing is to choose the right technique. However, even the easiest way requires effort and attention, as well as temporary investment.