Care for remont raspberries, pruning: how to make a good harvest
Repair raspberries have been grown for more than two centuries, but only the last decades have become popular with our gardeners. This was due to the fact that new varieties were developed, characterized by large-fruited, high productivity and managing to give many berries before the onset of cold weather. They are unpretentious in care, but need the correct pruning, affecting crops.
Varietal characteristics of raspberries
Repairing raspberry varieties differ from others in that they are able to bear fruit not only on two-year-old shoots, but also on annuals. Fruiting on biennial branches is no different from normal. The second flowering (on annual shoots) occurs in late July, and the berries ripen unevenly in August-September.
Did you know? The greatest contribution to obtaining fruitful domestic varieties of remontant raspberries was made by Professor I.V. Kazakov. He bred more than 20 varieties of this berry, and 8 of them were included in the State Register of selection achievements.
Most varieties can be grown in an annual culture, cutting off all the aerial parts before the cold. Many of them were obtained as a result of repeated interspecific crossbreeding and do not allow root shoots well, which makes their reproduction difficult by conventional methods.
Do I need to prune the raspberry
Untrimmed raspberry bushes thicken over the years so that they become similar to currant. The yield of such a bush will not be particularly high. Aged shoots that live and bear fruit for only 2 years will thicken the plant and create conditions for the rapid development of diseases and pests.
It is possible to grow remont raspberries as a one- or perennial culture:
They also impede the development of new young shoots. Fruits on such bushes become smaller, and eventually fruiting may cease altogether. So any raspberry needs to be trimmed, including remont. For her, pruning is one of the most important agricultural practices.
Cropping scheme: features
Due to the ability to bear fruit on annual shoots, pruning raspberry pruning can be done in different ways. Cutting all branches in the fall is considered the most optimal.
In this case, repeated fruiting will be a few weeks later and much less. When pruning, the climatic conditions of raspberry growth should also be taken into account.
In the northern regions, it is recommended to do spring pruning of bushes, since the abandoned branches help plants winter. In the middle lane and in the south it is better to cut in the fall.
This is the most effective type of pruning, avoiding summer fruiting and harvesting a plentiful crop in August-September. During it, all branches are cut at a distance of 4 cm from ground level.
Then the old mulch, garbage and cut branches, which are then burned, are removed from the bush. Ample watering and cultivation is carried out. Mulching is carried out by humus or rotted manure. This will help raspberries survive the winter and prepare for the next season.
Such a short pruning is an effective agricultural technique that increases the winter hardiness of the crop and helps to avoid pests and diseases. Berries from such raspberries are more environmentally friendly, since the need for chemical treatments disappears.
Important! Plants planted in the current season do not greatly shorten, as this interferes with their rooting. They are left with a height of up to 20 cm.
In the spring
During spring pruning, dried and frozen branches are removed to the first “living” bud. In such conditions, diseases and pests often reproduce. If plants in the previous season were attacked by pests and diseases, then after this procedure, appropriate preparations should be used. Usually use iron (copper) vitriol (1%) or Nitrafen.
During a year
Summer pruning is usually done with two fruiting in order to increase the yield of the second wave.
To do this, immediately after the first crop leaves, do the following pruning:
- Remove prolific branches.
- Too weak shoots and branches that thicken the planting, young shoots and replacing shoots growing near the ground are cut.
The second point can also be performed when pruning to obtain one crop on annual shoots.
They still pinching the top in May, if desired, when reaching a height of about a meter. This will increase the number of fruit twigs and stretch the fruiting period, but will slightly delay the time it started. This technique also stimulates the appearance of a larger number of root shoots.
How to prune repair raspberries to increase crop yields
To get the maximum yield from the bushes, this variety is recommended to be completely cut during autumn pruning and get a plentiful crop in late summer - early fall. In this case, the berries will be larger and the yield higher than with two fruits.
If the top is cut off from annual shoots that have grown to a meter, then the crop can be further increased due to the appearance of a larger number of lateral fruit-bearing shoots. When using this technique, keep in mind that fruiting will come a little later, but will last longer. Therefore, the climatic features of the area should be taken into account. Such a reception will be most relevant for the southern regions and the middle zone.
Autumn pruning should be done after the leaves that feed the plant fall before the onset of cold. In mild winters, it can be delayed until the beginning of November. It's okay if the first snow has time to fall during this time.
Important! If you hurry with autumn pruning, the root buds can wake up, which will lead to a decrease in crop yield in the next season.
In spring, treatment should be done when it is possible to determine the "living" kidneys in order to remove dead parts. This time usually falls on April. An optional summer pruning of annual shoots is done after the plant grows about 0.9–1 m (in May), and two-year-old ones after fruiting.
Double Sobolev trimming: advantages and disadvantages
The first pruning of bushes according to the Sobolev method of remont raspberries is carried out after the 20th of May or in early June. In shoots 0.8–1 m long, the apex of 12–15 cm is removed.
The second pruning is carried out next year in the spring. As soon as the first leaves appear, the side shoots that have grown after the first pruning are cut from above by 7-15 cm.
This process stimulates the vital activity of plant culture - on the main stem, sleeping buds are activated and young shoots grow.
Thus, the first pruning according to Sobolev is a preparation, namely the second one gives an effect.
The bush becomes lush and completely covered with color, and then berries. Moreover, fruiting lasts longer than usual, and yield is significantly increased.
- This method also has disadvantages:
- In addition to pruning, proper crop care is required. Only then will this cropping method give a result.
- This procedure causes the overgrowth of bushes, which causes a thickened plantings. This, in turn, reduces yields and makes raspberry picking difficult.
The raspberry pruning scheme according to Sobolev is used when planting new bushes, as well as to update plantings. For repair raspberries, it is suitable if you plan to get two crops per season.
Important! To avoid thickening, it is necessary to maintain a large distance between the rows of raspberries.
Caring for the bushes after pruning: seasonal differences
After trimming, it is necessary to carry out other work to care for remont raspberries:
- Immediately after the procedure of cutting the shoots, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the bushes, since loosening the earth around them is not worth it because the root system is on the surface and can be easily damaged.
- During the entire warm period, it is necessary to water, and especially during the appearance of berries.
- To obtain a good harvest, appropriate feeding should be carried out. In March, complex fertilizers are applied, and before the appearance of color and in the fall, when the bushes cease to bear fruit, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium sulfate) are introduced.
- It is also necessary to carry out the prevention of diseases and insect pests.
- In the fall, after trimming, dig the soil between the rows and insulate the roots of the bushes by mulching with a layer of 10 cm. As a mulch, humus, manure, and straw are well suited.
Diseases and Pests
Under unfavorable conditions or a violation of agricultural production techniques, remont raspberries can be subjected to diseases and the appearance of insect pests.
Did you know? Despite the sweet taste, raspberries contain about 50 kcal / 100 g. This fresh berry can be included in weight loss diets.
Consider the main diseases of this plant culture:
- Curly hair. This viral disease can be detected by twisting the leaves, which gradually dry, becoming dark brown, and fall off. Berries taste sour. Unfortunately, you can’t get rid of kinkiness, so you need to purchase only healthy planting material and inspect seedlings well. Sick raspberry bushes need to be dug up and disposed of.
- Mycoplasmosis. This disease causes the appearance of many infertile processes. It quickly affects neighboring bushes, so at the first sign all copies should be dug up and disposed of. Seedlings should also be well checked, since cicadas can infect mycoplasmosis.
- Raspberry. The main reason is improper care - lack of watering, lack of nitrogen, high density of plantings and, as a result, lack of sunlight. It is necessary to strictly observe the agricultural technology of cultivation.
- Rust. This fungal disease also leads to drying out of leaves and shoots. A speck appears on the foliage, they are deformed and dry. Sores appear on the branches. The disease is not treatable, therefore the affected bushes are also subject to destruction. To prevent the appearance of rust, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments in the spring and autumn using 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- Purple spotting. You can detect the disease by the appearance of purple spots. Branches of the bush become fragile, brittle and cease to grow. The disease often provokes an increased level of moisture. To eliminate the problem, treatment with 1% Bordeaux mixture is used at least 3 times.
- Powdery mildew. Often the disease occurs due to an increased level of humidity. In this case, the lower part of raspberry bushes is covered with a whitish powdery coating. The leaves begin to dry, and the berries undergo a deformation process. In this case, spraying with Bordeaux mixture is also necessary. You can also use a soda-soap solution - dissolve 4 g of soda and laundry soap in 1 liter of water. Do 2 weekly treatments.
- Anthracnose. Identify by the presence of grayish spots with a burgundy border, which grow, forming ulcers.In this case, the leaves curl and die, and unripe berries begin to darken and deform. In this case, Bordeaux fluid should also be used.
- Leaf curl. It usually occurs due to a lack of potassium and boron. To make up for the lack of potassium, ash is introduced into the soil, but boron deficiency is eliminated by applying this element to the soil in spring.
The invasion of the following pests can significantly reduce the yield of the machine:
- Aphid shoot and leaf. The first type of insect settles on the shoots and inside the inflorescences. Accordingly, a different species of aphid prefers leaves, and settles on their back. These pests drink plant juice, slowing the growth and development of bushes. For control use spraying with chemical preparations such as "Actellic" and "Karbofos".
- Spider mite. This insect can be identified by the thinnest cobweb. The leaves at the same time begin to dry and die. The appearance of a pest often provokes dry air in the summer heat. In this case, treatment is carried out with Karbofos, Metaphos, or colloidal sulfur is used. To prevent the appearance of the pest, the bushes need to be watered and moistened the lower part of the plants.
- Gall midges. These insects lay eggs on the affected areas of the crop, which causes them to die, as well as exfoliation of the bark. First of all, shoots with such lesions should be removed. These insects winter in the soil, therefore, in the fall and spring, a site should be re-digged with a planting depth of up to 15 cm. For control and prevention, Aktellik or Karbofos chemical preparations are used.
- Raspberry beetle. This insect eats the color of raspberries, reducing its productivity. The pest is collected manually. For prevention, it is necessary to dig the soil. From chemical preparations "Decis" or "Condor" helps well.
- Weevils. The buds are affected, significantly reducing the yield. To combat these insects use "Karbofos", "Metaphos" or "Actellik".
- Kidney moth. The larvae of this insect (caterpillar) eat the buds in spring, and during flowering after pupation, butterflies appear that make egg laying in the buds when the color appears. Emerging caterpillars eat berries, reducing productivity. For prophylaxis, it is necessary to remove old shoots, but to combat this moth they use the chemical preparations “Kondifos” or “Iskra”.
- Stem fly. Her larvae eat stems, causing them to wilt. At the first sign of damage, it will remove the upper part of the shoots to prevent spreading to healthy branches. It is also necessary to carry out processing with chemical preparations “Karbofos” or “Actellik”.
To prevent the occurrence of diseases and pests, it is necessary to adhere to the cultivation agricultural technique, remove all dry and damaged branches, clean the area of fallen leaves, dig in the fall, apply nitrogen-containing fertilizing in the spring, and do not thicken the plantings. It is required in early spring to carry out preventive treatments against fungal diseases with a Bordeaux mixture, and against pests with Aktellik or Karbofos.
Important! Fresh and dried fruits, and raspberry leaves are an excellent antipyretic, diaphoretic, and anti-cold medicine. Children like to be treated with such a sweet “medicine”.
If you carry out the correct pruning of remont raspberries, observe agricultural cultivation techniques, and also prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, a good harvest of juicy and tasty berries will be guaranteed. The most fruitful is a short pruning, guaranteeing a large number of large fruits from the end of summer.