Features of remont raspberry Samokhval
Currently, quite often there are various new varieties of raspberries. Sometimes it is very difficult to understand the advantages and disadvantages of new items due to its lack of knowledge. Let’s try to take a closer look at one of the recently developed repairing raspberry varieties - Samokhval.
What is repair raspberry
Repairing is called raspberry, a feature of which is the ability to bear fruit twice a season. Often the repairing varieties bring the first crop rather early, and the second - when the usual varieties have already bred. Thus, combining and combining simple and remontant varieties in the garden, you can significantly extend the fruiting and enjoy the harvest of your favorite berry.
Features varieties Samohval
Raspberry Samokhval, or Nizhny Novgorod 2 - a completely new repairing variety of Russian selection, obtained as a result of crossing Caramelka and Nizhny Novgorod. Samokhval was bred in the school garden Nizhny Novgorod nursery, the originator is V. A. Shiblev. It was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation only in 2018.
The bush is of medium power and strength, moderately sprawling, drooping type. Annual shoots can reach a height of 1.3–1.5 m, depending on the region, the timing and growing conditions. In the description of the variety, the originator indicates that Samokhval is lower than his ancestors.
One-year-old stems are light brown in color, with a light coating of wax. The base of the thorns is purple, the tips are bent down, not sharpened sharply. Most of the thorns are in the lower part of the raspberry bush. Large leaves are slightly twisted, the edges are serrated. There are a lot of lateral branches, they are poorly pubescent and quite developed.
The variety is characterized by a well-developed shoot substitution, increasing for the second or third season. Berries have an average weight of 6 to 9 g. According to some gardeners, using advanced agricultural techniques, you can grow a crop with a fairly large number of very large berries - up to 20 g.
The fruits are cone-shaped, regular in shape, during the period of technical ripeness, glossy, scarlet color (see photo). By the time of consumer maturity, the color becomes less bright, a ruby hue appears.
Did you know? Russia grows about 150 thousand tons of raspberries per year, being the largest producer of crops in the world. The top five also includes the United States, Serbia, Germany and Poland.
The fruit drupe is firmly interconnected, which makes the pulp quite dense, but it is also very juicy. The raspberries in question have excellent taste qualities, which, according to experts, are 4.2–4.5 points.
The chemical composition of berries:
- sugar — 7,2%;
- acid — 1,3%;
- vitamin C - 56 mg / 100 g.
The described variety has a medium ripening period - in the central regions of Russia you can harvest in the second half of August - in the first half of September. The yield, according to the application of breeders-developers, is high: it can reach 18 t / ha, up to 8 kg of berries can be collected from one bush. According to unverified data, in the phase of technical ripeness, it is possible to harvest using the mechanized method.
It does not have a pronounced predisposition to major diseases, although nothing is known about any particular resistance to certain diseases. The developers of Nizhny Novgorod 2 and gardeners with experience in growing varieties claim that it has good winter hardiness.
Video: Raspberry Samohval
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of the variety:
- the ability to produce two crops per season;
- wonderful sweet taste;
- high yields;
- the fruits have a dense structure, which contributes to good transportability;
- due to the significant number of substitution shoots, the reproduction process does not cause difficulties;
- tolerates winter frosts well;
- suitable for industrial cultivation;
- there is no need for mandatory installation of trellises;
- good harvest in the first season after planting;
- normally tolerates light shading;
- good resistance to pests and viruses;
- the second crop is almost as large as the first;
- declared possibility of mechanized harvesting;
- a moderate number of thorns, the bulk of which is collected in the basal part of the stem.
Samohval has few drawbacks, although, perhaps, in the process of cultivation and a more detailed study of the variety, their number will increase.
- Today, there are only three main disadvantages:
- poor knowledge of the variety;
- the need for regular abundant top dressing;
- the variety reacts poorly to moisture deficiency, shading is mandatory in the southern latitudes.
Did you know? Raspberry fruits and leaves contain quite a lot of iron and folic acid, which makes the plant indispensable during pregnancy: the first component prevents the development of anemia, and the second necessary for the normal functioning of the central nervous system of the fetus.
If you cut the shoots in the autumn, in the summer you will get one crop of large Samohval berries. When growing two crops, part of the fruits of the second stage is lost, "goes into the winter." In addition, later berries, although not much, are still smaller than the fruits of the first crop. The remaining features of planting, growing and caring for Nizhny Novgorod 2 will be described in detail below.
Selection of seedlings and plot
In order for Samokhval to give the most abundant crop, it needs to be grown on fertile, light and loose soil with a sufficient level of moisture. The most favorable place for growing is an open area well-lit by the sun, although a slightly shaded area is acceptable.
Planting a plant on the north side of tall trees or buildings should not be - in such places there is very little sunlight. When choosing a place for landing, it is necessary to take into account the principles of crop rotation.
- Raspberries take root well in places where they were cultivated before:
- garlic and onions;
Quite a good option for growing crops in places where calendula or marigolds used to grow. Areas where solanaceous were grown are better not to use under raspberries. If there are no other options, then you should wait at least 1 year, sowing such a site with green manure.
You can plant Samokhval in autumn or winter. For spring planting, the soil and ridges are better prepared in the fall. After collecting the whole crop in the garden, they begin to prepare it for winter - it is at this time that you need to tackle the site where raspberries will be grown.
The selected site should be dug up well, remove all organic debris, break large clods of land. As a result, you should get a dug up area with a medium and small fraction of soil: the size of the lumps is no more than a cherry. There should not be any remains of grass, roots and leaves on the site.
The area dug up and cleared of plant debris must be fertilized using (per 1 m²):
- rotted mullein - 1 bucket;
- humus - 1 bucket;
- superphosphate - 10 tbsp. l .;
- complex mineral fertilizers - 10 tbsp. l
All ingredients are thoroughly mixed, evenly distributed over the site, and then dug again. If your site is dominated by heavy soils that do not allow moisture to pass through, for each 1 m², 2 buckets of clean river sand are brought in.
If the soil is acidic (pH <5.5), lime or dolomite flour is added to it. The same activities can be performed in early spring, but no later than 3 weeks before the start of planting work.
Particular attention should be paid to the choice of planting material. Previously, seedlings were purchased in markets, from acquaintances, in nurseries (the most optimal option).With the development of digital technology, various online stores have joined these categories of suppliers.
In any case, when choosing seedlings, be guided by the presence of such signs:
- At the base of the seedling should be at least three strong healthy buds. From these buds, shoots should grow, which will bear fruit in the next year.
- The roots should be healthy and strong, sufficiently moist and elastic, well branched. It is highly undesirable to have root fractures and the slightest signs of dryness, wilting, or disease.
- Choose a seedling with at least one fully formed stem, which indicates the viability of planting material.
Preparing planting material
After purchase, the roots of the seedling should be wrapped with a damp rag. Planting work should be carried out as soon as possible after the acquisition of the plant. Before planting, seedlings should be soaked for 2-3 hours in 0.1% solution "Heteroauxin".
It is preferable to plant a scoop in a row method. Recommended landing pattern:
- the distance between the rows is 1.5–2 m;
- the distance between two bushes in the same row is 0.55–0.7 m.
It is better to dig trenches for landing 12-15 days before the planned date of the event.
At the bottom of the trench you need to lay a mixture consisting of the following components:
- peat - 1 bucket;
- compost - 1 bucket;
- humus - 1 bucket;
- ash - 2 shovels;
- complex mineral fertilizers - 1 cup.
In the trenches prepared by the described method, after 2 weeks, raspberries can be planted.
Do this as follows:
- Every 55–70 cm, seedlings are pre-soaked in “Heteroauxin”.
- The trench is covered with earth, making sure that the root neck of each seedling is 2-3 cm above ground level, as otherwise it can lead to the death of the plant.
- Tamped the earth, bushes abundantly watered. Raspberries are cut to a height of 35–40 cm - so the culture will most likely take root and give a bountiful harvest.
- At the last stage of planting, plants should be mulched. Mulch can be prepared from straw, sawdust, peat or a mixture thereof.
Important! DTo mulch raspberries, you need to take only those sawdust that has time to over-heat well.
Watering and fertilizer
For the normal growth of raspberries Nizhny Novgorod 2 and a decent harvest, you need to water the crop abundantly and regularly. Apply sprinkling or the root method. For the second method, it is better to prepare an irrigation ditch dug along the landing trench. It is filled with water, which, seeping through the soil, nourishes the root system.
If you prefer sprinkling, then cold water from a well, column or water supply is not suitable for these purposes. Collect water in open containers and leave it in the air for a couple of days, and then use it for watering.
The required volume of water depends on the specific weather conditions. If in the summer the usual amount of precipitation falls in your region, an average of two buckets of water per bush per week will suffice.
In the event that precipitation is more than normal, you can do without additional watering. Stagnant moisture can adversely affect the condition of the plant - the roots begin to rot, yield decreases. In order for the Samokhval variety to grow normally and bring abundant crops, it must be fertilized regularly and in the proper amount.
When making fertilizing, you should be guided by the following stages of vegetation:
- The introduction of nitrogen fertilizers in early spring, before the onset of active sap flow. You can use urea, ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate (20 g / 1 m²).
- Before the formation of berries should be fertilized planting with potassium and nitrogen. At this stage, the importance of nitrogen decreases, the plant needs more potassium. Use potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate. You can dissolve 1 tbsp in a bucket of water. l ammonia and potassium nitrate and 2 tbsp. superphosphate. One bucket of the resulting solution is designed for 1 m² raspberry.
- During the ripening period of the crop, at least 2 weeks before the start of harvest, 2 tbsp. superphosphate per 1 m² of landings.
In addition, we should not forget about organic top dressing:
- Mullein. Dilute well-rotten cow manure (1 kg) in 1 bucket of water, mix and let it brew. After a week, dilute the infusion with water 1: 1, the resulting product to evenly pour the soil under the bushes. Irrigation rate - half a bucket per 1 m².
- Humus. On each 1 m² of raspberry, spread 6 kg of humus evenly.
- Poultry litter. Fertilizer is prepared two weeks before the planned feeding. It is necessary to breed 500-600 g of bird excrement in a bucket of water, leave for two weeks in a darkened and quite warm place. Next, pour the resulting infusion of planting (0.5 buckets / 1 m²).
- Wood ash. You can scatter dry sifted ash (1 shovel / 1 m²) on the ground, dig it up slightly so that it is not dispelled by the wind. The same amount of ash can be dissolved in 10 liters of water and poured with the resulting planting solution (10 l / 1 m²).
Another type of top dressing is foliar, or spraying. For this procedure, the following ingredients must be dissolved in a bucket of water:
- superphosphate - 20 g;
- copper sulfate - 2 g;
- boric acid - 15 g.
The resulting solution is sprayed with raspberry bushes. This should be done in the early morning or after sunset. Otherwise, the sun can burn the leaves of the crop.
Pruning raspberries is carried out for its better growth, recovery, in order to prevent thickening of plantings (sanitary) and rejuvenation. Sometimes they distinguish between sanitary, anti-aging and shaping pruning, although all these varieties of the procedure are tightly interconnected and complement each other.
If you cut off all the annual shoots in the fall, in the summer you will get one plentiful crop of large berries. In order to receive two crops from Samokhval, in the fall it is not cut at all. In the early spring, before the start of active sap flow, all weak, dry, sick, frostbitten and damaged shoots are removed. Leave 4-6 of the strongest shoots.
In late spring - early summer, when the annual growth reaches a height of about 1 m, it is cut to half the length. In addition, it is necessary to remove those young shoots that create excessive planting density. After harvesting, all two-year-olds are removed, cutting them to the very root.
In the event that you decide to get one crop of large fruits, proceed as follows:
- In autumn, after deciduous fall, all the two-year-old shoots are removed.
- From the site remove all residues of raspberry and weed plants (branches, leaves, parts of the roots, etc.).
- Remove weak shoots that create excessive density (thin out raspberries).
- The remaining strongest branches are mentally divided into 3 parts: in the first third, the tops are cut by 16–20 cm, in the second third, the longer upper part is cut - 28–32 cm. The remaining third of the shoots is cut to half the height. The result of this pruning will be the extension of the fruiting of the variety - bushes that have undergone the smallest shortening will begin to bear fruit first, followed by more heavily pruned ones. The shoots that underwent the most radical operation will be the last to bring the crop, and these will be the largest berries.
- In the spring, after the snow melts, all frozen, damaged and diseased shoots are removed. On healthy stems, the tops (8–10 cm) are cut to stimulate growth.
- After trimming and thinning, no more than a dozen shoots should remain on one bush.
Important! When trimming raspberries, it is extremely important to comply with the timing of the event. In order for the procedure to be most effective and not harm the plant, in the autumn the bushes are pruned no later than 17–20 days before the first frost, in the spring - before the start of active sap flow.
Pest and Disease Control
Originators assure that Samokhval is resistant to diseases and pests at the level of modern standard varieties.There is no more accurate information about which diseases the variety is more susceptible to, and to which it has a strong immunity (due to little knowledge). For this reason, we will further talk about the most typical and dangerous diseases and pests of raspberries.
All the main diseases of raspberries and other garden berries are of three types: fungal, viral and bacterial. Fungal diseases include purple and white spotting, anthracnose, powdery mildew, verticillin wilt, gray rot, ulcerative spotting, etc.
Fungal diseases are treated with copper-containing drugs: Bordeaux liquid (3%), HOM, Kuproksat, Kuprozan. Spray the plants in the fall, after the leaves have completely crumbled, and in the spring, before the start of active sap flow.
If such treatment is not enough, until the ovaries begin to form, foliar treatment is carried out with the following drugs: Bordeaux liquid (1%), Phthalan (0.5%), Kaptan (0.5%), Tsineb (0.7%).
Important! In places of outbreaks of viral diseases, the crops on which the virus was detected should be re-planted no earlier than 5 years later.
Diseases caused by viruses - this is a witch's broom (growth, dwarfism), curly, mosaic. Viral plant diseases are considered incurable, so the only effective method of control is the speedy removal of the affected plant and all its parts from the garden plot and their destruction. This type of disease poses a special danger also due to the large number of infection paths: in addition to the traditional airborne virus, pests are carriers of viruses.
Bacterial diseases - This is the root and stem cancer. This type of disease does not pose a great danger to plants, so it is not worth treating raspberries with chemicals. Even if no measures are taken, with the normal development of the plant, it will be able to recover on its own - due to the death of the pathogen.
In order for the pathogen to die as soon as possible, they introduce into the soil superphosphate, a mixture of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride. Contribute to the destruction of the pathogen bacteria and organic fertilizing.
Pests threatening raspberry plantings:
- Raspberry beetle - a pest that affects raspberry buds, and its larvae attack berries. Destroy the pest with drugs "Decis", "Confidor", "Karbofos" according to instructions.
- Stem gall midge - a pest well known in Ukraine and the southern regions of Russia. The length of the insect is not more than 2 mm. It affects the stems on which swellings are formed - galls, where insect larvae winter. Parts of stems located above the galls die off. If you do not fight the insect, you can lose up to 60–70% of the crop. To combat gall midge apply Karbofos (0.1%), Decis, Bordeaux liquid (1%). Processing is carried out in the spring, until the gall midge began to lay eggs, and in the fall, after the foliage is dumped.
- Stem fly - A small fly that feeds on the juicy stems cores. Kill a fly with insecticides Decis, Karbofos, Actellik. Activities are carried out in the spring, before the buds begin to bloom, and in the fall, when preparing the garden for winter.
- Stem aphid - one of the most common and dangerous pests of culture. Most often, plantings growing in a shaded area are striking. Aphid colonies settle at the ends of young shoots and inflorescences. On the bushes affected by the pest, the foliage twists, the shoots stop growing, and the flowers fade. In addition, aphids are also dangerous because they are carriers of viral diseases. The likelihood of a pest in the raspberry growing during a drought. To kill aphids use drugs Karbofos and Actellik during budding.
- Raspberry tick - a very small (up to 0.5 mm) pest, which can bring enormous harm to raspberries. It affects the leaves of the culture, entangling with cobwebs and eating their juice.It is quite difficult to detect a tick, as it has a very small size. If the pest has spread strongly enough on the raspberry, stems are also covered with cobwebs. In this case, the leaves begin to crumble, the buds stop developing. Against a tick use a solution colloidal sulfur (1%)type insectoacaricides “Actellik”, “Akreks”, “Fitoverm”. Colloidal sulfur is used before the flowering of the culture, the rest of the drugs are used as indicated in the instructions.
Preparing for the winter
One of the strengths of Nizhny Novgorod 2 declared by the originator is its winter hardiness. However, this does not mean at all that the variety does not need to be prepared for winter at all.
Did you know? Raspberry is one of ten fruits and vegetables with the highest content of antioxidants - substances that prevent oxidative processes in the body, which reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and cancer. In addition, the concentration of vitamin C in the fruits of the culture is higher than in oranges.
Such training consists of the following activities:
- After harvesting, autumn pruning and harvesting raspberries, they dig it up, conduct winter irrigation, and fertilize.
- Bushes spud, remove from the stems all the remaining greens, which are destroyed outside the garden.
- Landings are mulching. It is best to use a mixture of straw taken in equal parts, rotted sawdust and peat.
- In the event that snowless winters and severe frosts are not uncommon in your region, shoots on the bushes should be connected together and bent to the ground, tied to trellises (if any). If there is no trellis, you need to stick wooden pegs into the soil, to which ligaments of shoots should be attached.
- After snow falls, it is collected from areas where it is not needed, and raspberries are covered in them.
Harvesting and storage
Raspberry does not tolerate long-term storage. In order to maintain the harvest for more than 1 week, it must be processed or frozen. To keep the berries fresh, even in the most ideal conditions, more than 5-7 days will not work.
However, some recommendations will help you extend the shelf life of fruits by at least 2-3 days:
- so that raspberries remain fresh as long as possible, they should be collected in the phase of technical maturity;
- you need to harvest in the morning or in the late afternoon, in dry weather;
- harvesting should not be carried out after rain until the fruits are dry or while the dew is holding;
- break off the berry from the branch with part of the stem;
- for collection use birch bark baskets, filling them in 75–80% of the volume;
- When collecting fruits, try to touch their surface as little as possible. Ideally, the collection is carried out in this way: bring the open palm from the bottom to the berry, with the tips of the nails of the thumb and middle or forefinger, pinch the stalk 2-3 cm above the berry. Carefully place the fruit that has fallen into the palm of your hand in a basket or other collecting container;
- do not lay berries with the slightest damage to the surface, as well as those without peduncles, to the rest of the crop;
- send berries for storage in the same container into which they were collected - do not pour the fruits into another container;
- subject to the above recommendations, the fruits can be stored in the cellar, basement or refrigerator for up to 1 week.
Perhaps the only significant minus of Raspberry Samokhval at the moment is its lack of knowledge. The rest of the variety is very promising, bred by experienced breeders and also having an excellent pedigree.