Kuibyshev sheep and sheep: description and characteristics of the breed
Breeding sheep can have two goals - getting meat or wool. However, from the economic point of view, those breeds that combine both of these directions are of the greatest interest. This category belongs to the well-known Russian breeders and deserving more than one enthusiastic review of the Kuibyshev sheep, which will be discussed below.
The Kuibyshev breed is quite widespread on the domestic market and is a classic example of the successful combination of the highest quality meat and no less valuable wool in one animal, which is in great demand in light industry as a raw material for the production of good and, by the way, quite expensive knitwear.
The breed got its name thanks to the place, or rather, the area where it was bred. The breeders of the Koshkinsky State Pedigree Station in Orlovka, Kuibyshev Region, began to breed a new breed of sheep in the mid 30s of the last century. A special contribution to this work was made by livestock specialists A. Vasiliev, V. Vatagin, D. Nekrasov and others.
At the first stage, scientists crossed three lines:
- local breed - Cherkasy meat and wool sheepcharacterized by a coarse, but rather uniform coat;
- Aboriginal Wagassian sheep classified as half-fine (female line);
- long-haired Kent meat-wool breed, known as romney march (Bred in the 13th century in the UK, officially registered in 1985).
During the Second World War, breeding was interrupted, but subsequently resumed. The offspring obtained as a result of crossing sheep of Cherkasy and English origin was carefully selected for participation in further breeding work, until finally in 1948 the final formation of a new domestic breed was announced. The experience turned out to be so successful that after another 10 years the Koshkinsky pedigree station was transformed into a pedigree farm specializing in its breeding.
Did you know? The most expensive breed of sheep in the world are the lop-eared dolans bred in China. In the world today there are no more than two thousand copies of these animals, and the price of each of them exceeds $ 2 million.
The main characteristics of the breed
The Kuibyshev breed is a classic example of a semi-fine-wool type of sheep with a long, semi-coarse and uniform pile, inherited by the animal from their English ancestor. At the same time, the meat indicator is no less interesting.
Appearance and specifications
The breed is distinguished by a strong and powerful skeleton, as well as an elongated barrel-like body with a wide straight back, flat head, small but strong neck and short muscular legs, ending with sharp neat hooves. Like representatives of both parental lines, the Kuibyshev sheep belong to the hornless (without horns).
The coat is dense, rather thick, long, according to the standard from 12 to 15 cm, with large curls, has a uniform shiny structure and covers the whole body, head to the eyes and legs to the hock (carpal) joints. Because of this, the animal looks like a single skein of wool, decorated with a pretty muzzle. The main color of the coat and hair is white, but darker areas are allowed in the area of the legs and ears. The structure of the wool is staple or staple-braid.
Video: Kuibyshev breed of sheep
Description of the breed of farm animals will be incomplete without an assessment of its productivity.Since Kuibyshev sheep have a mixed use, this indicator should be considered both in terms of wool and meat. At the same time, it must be said that in both of these areas the indicators of the Kuibyshev sheep are considered to be very high.
With regard to wool, the breed is characterized by the following indicators:
|males at the age of 12 months||2,3–2,5|
|females aged 12 months||1,7–1,9|
|The yield of pure wool,%||55–65|
|The length of the cross section of the fiber (fineness), microns:|
|males 4 months old||27–34|
|females 4 months old||25–31|
|males at the age of 12 months||27–34|
|females aged 12 months||27–31|
|males 4 months old||5|
|females 4 months old||4,5|
|males at the age of 12 months||13|
|females aged 12 months||12|
The fertility of the breed is 120-130% (this means that a herd of 10 sheep during the year increases by 12-13 goals).
Kuibyshev sheep can be sheared twice a year - in autumn and spring.
The early maturity rate of the Kuibyshev sheep is also very high, as evidenced by the following figures:
|Mass of the newborn lamb, kg||4–4,5|
|The average daily weight gain of a newborn lamb during breastfeeding, kg||0,5|
|Live weight of male / female at the age of 4 months, kg||21–30/19–28|
|Live weight of male / female at the age of 12 months, kg||50–55/41–45|
|Live weight of an adult ram, kg||110–120 (sometimes 140–150)|
|Live weight of an adult sheep, kg||60–70 (less often - up to 90)|
|Flesh ratio (ratio of flesh and bones)||5 points|
|Carcass yield at the age of 6-7 months,%||50|
|Carcass yield at the age of 8–10 months,%||75|
Of particular note is the quality of the meat of sheep of this breed. It combines the optimal ratio of the most delicate fat layer between thin meat fibers and the absence of a dense inner layer of fat.
Such meat is called marble, it is characterized by amazing tenderness and juiciness, is easily digestible and is considered very useful, and therefore is very highly valued. True, these characteristics are present in the meat of lamb, which reached 8 months, and only in the case when the animals were on a free grazing.In the future, as an individual grows up, the taste of its meat decreases slightly, although the unpleasant specific smell characteristic of the “adult” mutton does not appear in the Kuibyshev breed.
Thus, the optimal age for slaughter of young animals is 8–10 months. In this case, it is possible to get the maximum bargaining at the minimum cost provided by free grazing in the pasture.
Did you know? Such a popular meat dish as barbecue was originally prepared from lamb. If the best part of pork for barbecue is the neck, then in a lamb carcass for this purpose it is best to purchase meat from the lumbar, a fragment of the back adjacent to the ribs, the ribs themselves or the upper outer part of the back leg.
In addition to wool and meat, Kuibyshev sheep are also a source of very healthy milk, from which, in turn, you can cook quite tasty cheeses. One ewe gives up to 6 liters of milk per day.
Finally, breeding a purebred livestock allows the farmer to receive additional income from:
- sperm sales;
- sales of breeding lambs;
- cases with a verified manufacturer;
- selling skins.
Important! The sale of lamb provides higher incomes than the sale of sheep wool. So, if you can earn no more than 250 rubles from a shear from one sheep per year, slaughtering one lamb aged 3-4 months (35–40 kg of live weight) allows you to get at least 10 times more bargaining.
Kuibyshev sheep are distinguished by strong immunity and unpretentiousness, and therefore are very well suited for breeding by beginner breeders.
However, the optimal conditions for this breed are regions with abundant meadow vegetation, because it is on free grazing that the lamb quickly gain weight and yield the famous marbled meat. In addition, the presence of lush meadow grass makes sheep farming a profitable business in terms of its low cost.
The breed is not afraid of harsh winters, but too dry summers can become a real problem for the farmer - not so much because of the high temperatures to which the sheep adapt easily, but because of the lack of sufficient amount of pasture for pasture.
Free grazing for Kuibyshev sheep can be arranged throughout the year, however, stall keeping of the breed in winter is also allowed. In this case, fresh grass and dead wood in the animal diet are replaced with hay, straw, silage, grain (barley, oats) and concentrated feed.
Animals do not impose particularly strict requirements on the premises; heating them, thanks to thick wool, is not needed. At the same time, in order for the wool to maintain its high quality characteristics, the farmer must ensure dryness and cleanliness in the stall. For this purpose, it is sufficient to provide a good ventilation system or simply organize a shelter for animals with a canopy, allowing the herd to shelter from heavy rainfall.Also, the premises should be freed from any sharp objects that could lead to accidental injury to animals. The optimal norm of the pen area per adult is 2 m².
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
- Professional livestock breeders and owners of small private farms unanimously note the following advantages of the Kuibyshev sheep breed:
- strong immunity, disease resistance;
- ability to adapt perfectly to changing weather conditions, it is equally easy to tolerate severe frosts and heat;
- low cost of growing due to the wide possibilities of using the pasture feeding method and the lack of high demands of the breed for feed quality;
- universal purpose;
- high quality wool, its large yield and wide scope of application, which ensures the absence of sales problems;
- fertility, rare complications during childbirth;
- precocity (fast weight gain);
- a large amount of meat relative to the bones;
- unique taste characteristics of meat, which makes it very popular and expensive.
Important! The main advantage of the Kuibyshev sheep in comparison with other breeds of meat and wool direction is the higher cost of wool and meat at the same cost of production.
- However, the breed has some disadvantages. These include, but are not limited to:
- low rates of “breeding in oneself” (with inbreeding, Kuibyshev sheep quickly degenerate);
- a sharp decrease in the quality and uniformity of the fineness of the wool as deterioration in cleanliness indicators;
- inefficiency of breeding without the presence of succulent pastures with stunted grass (narrow area for growing).
On the one hand, the fertility of the Kuibyshev sheep, a large amount of milk in ewes, light births and the frequent (approximately 30%) birth of two lambs in one litter, combined with good immunity and rapid weight gain of young animals, make the process of breeding these sheep not too difficult and easy payback. However, on the other hand, due to the mentioned genetic instability, which characterizes the breed, its reproduction has its own peculiarities and subtleties, and they must be taken into account when forming a parent herd.
The optimal age of the female of the first mating is 16 months. By this period, the animal gains about 65 kg of live weight, that is, almost completely reaches the size of an adult. Thus, after pregnancy, the female’s body switches to the formation of a lamb, while if the mating is too early, part of the internal forces goes to the development of the mother herself, but the offspring in this case are born weak and then gain weight very slowly.
Important! The interbreeding of the Kuibyshev sheep justifies itself only until the second generation.Subsequently, the resulting offspring must be knitted with other breeds.
The gestation period in a sheep lasts approximately 145-153 days. Over the course of a year, the female is able to normally tolerate only one lamb, but at the same time she can produce both one and two lambs. Extraneous assistance to the animal during childbirth is not required, usually lambing takes place without complications and takes no more than half an hour.
The optimal time of year for mating is the end of summer or the beginning of autumn. During this period of time, the mother's body is as prepared for future pregnancy as possible. In addition, according to the observations of experienced farmers, the probability of multiple births in this case increases, which is probably due to the high quality of sperm.
In the conditions of large livestock farms, females begin to mate at the age of 8–10 months, while increasing the number of annual lambing to two. This method leads to weaker offspring and faster depletion of the ewes body, but reduces overall production costs.
Lambs begin to switch to a self-feeding regimen at the age of one month, gradually introducing complementary foods in the form of straw, chopped grain, starting compound feed, and then fresh green grass. By three months, young animals are completely weaned from their mother.
In order for the lambs to gain weight faster, they include bran, root crops, silage, as well as vegetables and fruits in their diet.
Thanks to strong immunity and good endurance, Kuibyshev sheep rarely get sick. However, in case of non-compliance with sanitary requirements on the farm, unbalanced nutrition and improper breeding work, the breeder may encounter the following diseases in the herd:
|Disease name||Description and symptoms||First aid and treatment, prevention|
|Bradzot||Bacterial gastric infection. Causes convulsions, excessive salivation, loss of coordination, gnashing of teeth.||There is no effective drug treatment; vaccination is an adequate measure of counteracting the disease.|
|Footrot||Infectious disease caused by damp litter. It appears as purulent inflammation in the hoof area.||Antibiotics (oxytetracycline) and local disinfectants (formalin), combined with quarantine and thorough sanitary treatment of the room.|
|Contagious ecthyma||Viral infection. Typical symptoms are ulcers and ulcers on the mucous membranes, udder, and other areas of the skin.||There is no specific treatment. To help the animal, antiseptics are used - iodine, a solution of potassium permanganate, etc.|
|Infectious mastitis||Infection of a bacterial nature, affecting the udder of lactating females. Causes local purulent inflammation, fever, rapid breathing.||Antibiotics and sulfonamides, disinfection of premises.|
|Listeriosis||Bacterial infection, often fatal. Causes convulsions, paralysis, loss of coordination, disorders of the musculoskeletal system.||An effective treatment has not yet been found.|
|Smallpox||Viral infection causing a rash, purulent discharge from the nose and eyes, fever, rapid breathing.||There is no effective treatment, but vaccination is possible.|
|Tick-borne encephalitis||Tick-borne viral infection affecting the nervous system.||There is no treatment, but with strong immunity, an independent recovery is possible.|
|Echinococcosis||A bacterial infection that causes serious intestinal upsets.||Medication exists, but is too expensive, so it is not used for livestock. Sick individuals should be isolated from the rest of the herd to stop the infection.|
The Kuibyshev sheep breed is specially bred for the harsh temperate climate, characterized by cold winters and hot summers.The main population of these animals today is concentrated in the homeland - in the Samara region, as well as in the adjacent territories of the Middle Volga economic region of the Russian Federation - Penza and Ulyanovsk regions, Tatarstan, Mordovia.
Did you know? The largest sheep in the world belongs to the Suffolk breed, weighs 247 kg and has a height of 109 cm at the withers. Three-year-old ram named Stratford Wisper, belonging to a couple of Oregon farmers Schalberger, boasts such dimensions.
Among all the semi-fine-walled sheep breeds raised in Russia, the Kuibyshev breed is fourth in terms of numbers, although over the past 40 years the total number of these animals has decreased significantly.
Several enterprises are professionally involved in breeding breeds in Russia. In addition to the Druzhba breeding factory (the former Koshkinsky pedigree station where the Kuibyshev sheep were bred), they also include Zorinskoye Joint-Stock Company (Saratov Region) and Aleksandrovsky Stud Farm No. 12 (Kursk Region).
Here, scientists are trying to improve the genetic stability of the Kuibyshev sheep, increase their early maturity, and obtain animals with a more uniform coat and even better taste characteristics of meat.Kuibyshev sheep are hardy and unpretentious animals, and the productivity indicators of the breed make its breeding a very profitable activity. Moreover, this applies to both small private farms and professional livestock enterprises. However, a novice farmer should remember that any breed of livestock requires proper care from the owner. Only under this condition can we count on the output of finished products that is stated in its description.
Here's an interesting feature: "Kuibyshev sheep belong to the breed of meat-wool sheep. Experienced sheep breeders prefer to cross them only until the second generation, and then diluted with other breeds, because the breed’s strengths are often lost further."