Sheep estrosis - sheep gadfly: diagnosis, symptoms of the disease
Estrosis is a dangerous invasive disease that affects livestock in hot summers. About how infection occurs, what are the symptoms of the disease, what treatment methods are used to diagnose an ailment, read further in the review.
Sheep estrosis: what is it
Estrosis is a disease of humans and animals that is provoked by insects. A parasitic disease in small cattle develops as a result of infection with gadfly larvae.
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The hot period - from the end of June to the end of September is the most dangerous for cattle, since it is during this time period that the sheep gadfly (Ovestrus ovis) activates. Due to the strong increase in temperature and soil density, the offspring deposited by the females die, and, in order to maintain the appearance, the insect “injects” the larvae into the nasal cavity of the sheep.
When the offspring of the parasite insect is in the sinus, the sheep can sneeze, then individuals that do not have time to attach to the mucous membranes drop out, and the rest is settled in the frontal and horn cavities of the animal.
Larvae of the gadfly are causative agents of estrosis; they enter the nasal passage at the first stage of development and parasitize inside the animal for 9–11 months until maturity. In this period, individuals do not exceed 2 mm in size. The parasites have a beige color, a piercing-sucking mouth apparatus, equipped with 2 hooks for better fixation on the mucous membranes of the animal. The insect is able to move and penetrate deep into the frontal and even horny parts of the head.
After 2 months, the molting process takes place, and the larva reaches the second stage of development - its body increases to 1 cm in length. At the last stage of development, individuals reach up to 3 cm in length and have a width of up to 6 mm.
The main symptoms and their difference from coenurosis
As a result of parasitization of the gadfly larvae, there is a violation of the integrity of the tissues, mucous membranes inside the nasal passage and places of resettlement of the insect. Damaged areas become inflamed and begin to rot. Soon, the processes of decay lead to the fact that a huge amount of toxins accumulate in the body of the sheep, which through the capillaries enter the blood and lymph.
Important! The parasite actively feeds on the tissues of the animal, thus stocking up with the necessary substances in order to leave the body of the animal with the advent of spring and continue its race.
Symptoms of estrosis infection:
- severe animal anxiety;
- a large amount of discharge from the nose, which have purulent or bloody impurities;
- difficulty breathing due to narrowing of the nasal passages;
- lack of coordination;
- lethargy and loss of appetite.
However, do not confuse the disease with estrosis with another ailment - coenurosis, which occurs due to parasitization of worms of the species Taenia multiceps
The pest larvae are localized in the brain, less often in the spinal cord. Due to their vital activity, the animal’s nervous system is affected, therefore, the symptoms are similar to estrosis - coordination is disturbed in sheep, appetite disappears, and increased irritability is observed. But there are symptoms that separate these two diseases from each other. With coenurosis, there is a sharp loss of vision or its complete absence, the animal makes a grinding of teeth, cramps of the spinal and cervical muscles can be observed.
Did you know? Rock sheep are one of the few animals that can survive at an altitude of 5 thousand kilometers above sea level.
Diagnosis: how to conduct a test for estrosis
Research on estrosis is based on a visual assessment of the condition of the sheep. The main thing is to pay attention to the symptoms of the manifestation of the disease in time, and begin treatment. The final diagnosis can be established only after opening the head of the dead sheep.
Methods of struggle
For the treatment of estrosis, drugs are used:
- "Tsiflunit Flock". Available in the form of a spray that is applied to the surface of the back along the spine. The tool provides reliable protection against gadflies, horseflies, flies and other insects for 4 weeks.
- Ivermek. It is used in the form of injections, which are administered twice with an interval of 10 days.
- Closatrem. Applied in the form of an injection, which begins its effect 10 hours after the injection and provides lasting protection against invasive diseases.
Prevention of occurrence
To minimize the risk of infection with estrosis, preventive measures are taken in the sheep pen. Stalls are thoroughly disinfected, insect traps are installed.
Important! The place of keeping animals should be cleaned daily of feces and various kinds of garbage that are disinfected and destroyed outside the farm.
Estrosis is a dangerous disease in small cattle. With proper, timely prevention and proper treatment of the disease, the extinction of livestock can be avoided.