How to plant remontant raspberry: general recommendations, scheme, step-by-step instructions
Repairing raspberry varieties are particularly attractive for gardeners who want to harvest a fragrant sweet berry throughout the summer. For a long time, suitable varieties were not bred for the middle band so that it was possible to appreciate the attractiveness of remontance. Now there are a sufficient number of new species that yield crops from mid-summer to the very frosts both in the south and in cold climates.
Repair raspberries: characteristics, features
A distinctive feature of remont raspberries is the ability to bear fruit on annual shoots. While ordinary raspberries in the first year only grows green mass and plant flowers that will yield the next year, shoots grow in the first year of the repairing varieties, they bloom and bear fruit before winter. Such raspberries can be grown as a one-year cycle, mowing all the shoots for the winter, and in the usual way: the next year the crop will be obtained from both annual and biennial shoots.
Another important benefit of remont raspberries is their low susceptibility to pest attacks.. Insects activate and attack ordinary raspberries during its flowering, and the repairing one during this period still only builds up shoots. Thus, there is no need to spend time and resources on insecticide treatment, and the crop itself will be more environmentally friendly.
Did you know? The leader in raspberry cultivation is Russia, in which half of the world's raspberries grow.
Rules for planting and care in the open ground
To ensure maximum yield and produce berries with the best taste plant raspberries should be on the sunniest spot, away from structures shading raspberry trees and trees. Fences, buildings and tall stands should be located on the side of the prevailing winds and protect the raspberry from drafts.
It is undesirable for melons or solanaceous plants to be the precursors of the culture. Soils are suitable for any, but heavy and clay are tolerated worse. Light nutritious loamy and sandy loam soils with a groundwater level of not higher than 1–1.5 m are preferred. When leaving, it is necessary to constantly monitor that the surface layer of the earth, in which the majority of the roots feed the plants, does not dry out.
Which grade to choose
When choosing a raspberry variety, it is necessary to be guided not by the attractiveness of the description of berries, but by the possibility of their successful cultivation in this region. An inappropriate choice will bring only trouble, loss of time and disappointment.
Important! Repairing raspberry varieties are more demanding to care than ordinary, and with a lack of lighting, moisture and nutrients, the crop will be worse than declared.
Among the most popular for the southern and central regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it is proposed Indian Summer, Bryansk Jubilee, Heracles, Orange Miracle and other regionalized varieties.
Berry Summer Berries roundish, medium in size, dark raspberry with a sweet and sour taste. The bush grows tall and branched.The variety is winter-hardy, but susceptible to powdery mildew, purple spotting and spider mite attacks.
Bryansk Jubilee with beautiful elongated red berries grows in a small compact bush with weak branching. Commercial quality is high, resistance to disease is average.
Hercules - a tall variety, but the volume of the bush is small. The ruby-colored berries are large, the pulp is juicy and dense. Suitable for industrial cultivation. It has a high resistance to fungal diseases and good transportability.
Orange Miracle differs in elongated up to 4 cm berries with a color from orange to scarlet and high taste. The pulp is dense, well tolerates transportation and storage. The variety is compact, medium-sized, requires garters to trellises.
For colder regions of the Urals and Siberia recommend raspberry varieties Inaccessible, Brilliant, Gift of Siberia and others with increased resistance to adverse conditions.
Variety berries Unreachable scarlet, large and have excellent taste and aroma. The bush is low, powerful and withstands frosts down to -23⁰С.
Grade Brilliant characterized by gradual ripening of medium size with sweet and sour taste berries. The fruits hold on to the stalks firmly and do not crumble upon ripening. Resistance to frost and disease is high.
The gift of Siberia gives berries a delicate peach hue with a pleasant taste and aroma. Bushes are powerful, tall. The variety is high-yielding and resistant to harsh conditions.
Landing dates in different regions
Repairing raspberries can be planted and propagated throughout the growing season, but when planting in spring or autumn, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the region.
During autumn planting, seedlings need to have time to take root before the onset of frost. They winter better, and in the early spring they will immediately start to grow. In the southern regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, autumn plantings are carried out from late October to early November and are completed 3-4 weeks before the onset of frost. In the central regions of Russia, the favorable period lasts from early September to the first decade of October, and in the northern regions of the Urals and Siberia from the beginning to mid-September.
Spring planting is carried out when the weather is warm enough for the seedlings to take root. It is necessary to wait until the threat of frost has passed. In the southern regions, work begins from the first of March, in the central - from late March to mid-April, and in the northern - from late April to early May.
General landing recommendations
Raspberry seedlings intended for planting should be healthy, strong, with a large number of small fibrous roots. During transportation, plant roots are wrapped in wet straw or burlap to protect against drying out. To improve survival, the seedlings are soaked for 1-2 days in water.
With any method of planting, seedlings are buried in the ground flush with the root neck. The arrangement of the bushes and the planting plan are planned in such a way as to provide the possibility of caring for raspberries, free passage for harvesting and places for installing supports.
Did you know? When raspberries and blackberries were crossed, varieties resistant to almost all diseases, without spines and root shoots, yielding high yields of more fragrant berries with an exquisite taste and long-term storage ability were bred.
The selected area must be cleaned of all weeds, especially perennials, since after the growth of raspberries it will be impossible to get rid of wheatgrass, bindweed or dandelion. It is also recommended to separate the raspberry with the help of boards or metal sheets dug to a depth of 20-30 cm to protect against uncontrolled spreading to other beds. If the acidity of the soil exceeds 5.8-6.2 Ph, liming is carried out.
Planting remontant raspberries differs little from the rules for ordinary varieties. With the help of step-by-step instructions, even a novice amateur can correctly plant bushes according to the selected scheme.
In the spring
Depending on the planting pattern, the relative position of the plants and the distance between them changes. Varietal characteristics of raspberries, the size and shape of the bush also affect the method of planting.
It is recommended that the methods proposed by the manufacturer be followed and the following instructions followed:
- in the autumn, dig a bed and weed out weeds;
- in the spring when warm weather is established, loosen the soil;
- dig holes or trenches, introducing humus, ash or complex mineral fertilizers;
- dip the roots of the sprouts into a mash of water, clay and mullein;
- arrange seedlings in pits, spreading the roots to the sides;
- fill the root system with soil, slightly tamping;
- water the bushes abundantly;
- mulch the surface of the earth with straw or sawdust.
The main difference of the autumn planting is that raspberry seedlings must have time to take root before the onset of cold weather, but at the same time they have not begun to grow intensively.
Important! It is not recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers when planting in the fall, as they stimulate the growth of green mass.
Step-by-step briefing of the event:
- dig a selected area a month and a half before planting and add humus, ash or potassium phosphorus salts;
- on the day of planting, loosen the surface of the earth and dig holes or trenches;
- cut the cuttings to a height of 20-30 cm;
- dip the roots into a solution of clay and mullein with the addition of root or heteroauxin;
- set seedlings in the holes, straighten the roots;
- fill the roots with soil and tamp;
- when planting in wet weather, the bushes are not watered, and if the soil has dried up, a bucket of water is brought under each plant;
- the surface of the soil is mulched.
Technology and landing patterns
Depending on the gardener's preferences and the characteristics of the plot, one of the following planting methods is selected.
Shrub planting is the easiest and most common. Wells measuring 50x70 cm are placed square or staggered at a distance of 80-100 cm from each other. 1 bush is planted in each well.
The trench method is more labor-intensive, but it pays off by the possibility of subsequent processing of row-spacing by a mechanized method and the possibility of using roll materials for mulching. This method is used in the industrial cultivation of raspberries and involves the installation of trellises for tying. Trenches form a width of 50 cm and a depth of 40 cm to an arbitrary length, placing them at a distance of 1.5–2 m from each other. Plants in a row are placed after 40 cm.
The formation of beds of repair raspberries on the ridges is a rather time-consuming process. This technology is used in marshy areas or on heavy clay soils. Its essence is that in the place of the beds they dig a trench about 80 cm deep and fill it with wood waste by a third: branches, bark and sawdust.
Then the dug up soil with humus and mineral fertilizers is mixed and the moat is filled up to the general level. After watering the trench, seedlings are placed on the surface in increments of 50 cm and sprinkled with the remaining soil, forming a ridge. On its edges to a height of about 30 cm, slate sheets or boards are installed to protect against destruction.
The method of arranging warm beds is even more complicated than the previous one and is used in harsh climates or, if you wish, to get an early harvest. Soil heating is achieved by the decomposition of organic residues embedded in the ground under raspberry bushes. For the construction of such beds, dig trenches 1 m deep, which enclose with slate to a height of 60–80 cm from the soil level.
The entire volume is filled with alternating layers 10-15 cm thick from sawdust, a mixture of soil with humus and organic waste mixed with fallen leaves and mineral fertilizers. The top is covered with a mixture of peat, humus and husks of sunflower or buckwheat. After abundant watering, organics gradually decompose and produce heat. After 2-3 weeks, make holes and plant raspberries in the usual way.
The method is used in the industrial cultivation of raspberries on sandy soils and also involves the formation of trenches in increments of 2–2.5 m, 1 m wide and 0.5 m deep.
To fill the ditches, use layers of manure or compost, a mixture of earth with humus and fertilize with ash, superphosphate and potassium sulfate. A large amount of enriched soil serves for several years to nourish the remont raspberries planted on the received beds in rows of 50x70 cm.
Landing in the tank
The method of planting remont raspberries, which is gaining popularity in recent years, has evolved from the idea of decorative cultivation in vases of remont strawberries and other berry crops. Bushes can be grown both in open ground and in any containers unnecessary in the farm - old buckets, leaky barrels or even bags.
Holes are made in the bottom of the drainage or they are completely removed, and a container is added in a selected place. Filling with a nutritious mixture, raspberries are planted on a bush. If necessary, such a container can be moved around the site, plant care is facilitated and the consumption of water and fertilizers is saved.
Did you know? For decorative purposes, varieties of raspberries with double flowers with a diameter of 5 cm with white, purple and pink color and corrugated leaves were bred.
Caring for the repairing types of raspberries includes standard procedures, but has its own characteristics depending on the method of cultivation and season.
In the spring
In April, before the start of sap flow, sanitary pruning of bushes is carried out. The shrunken branches are cut, the diseased and damaged parts are shortened to the first healthy kidney.Thinned bushes thinned young growthleaving no more than 15 shoots per 1 sq. m., which contributes to the formation of larger berries, accelerates their ripening and prevents infection by pathogens. The soil between the bushes is not dug, but loosened to a depth of 5-8 cm, so as not to damage the roots. The surface of the earth is mulched with straw or sawdust.
Under the load of ripening berries, the branches of the bushes can sink and lie down on the ground. To prevent damage to the crop, it is necessary to establish in advance every 2-3 m supports on which the wire or twine is pulled at several levels, starting from half a meter from the ground surface. An important condition for prolonging fruiting in remont raspberries and maintaining the quality of consistently ripening berries is the timely harvesting of fruits.
Weeds that regularly remove nutrients from the crop and obscure it are regularly removed. Control the number of young shoots, preventing the weakening of fruiting shoots. Leave 2-3 healthy root offspring, the rest are carefully cut with a shovel at a depth of 10-15 cm.
To obtain a ripened autumn crop, it is advisable to remove the weakest inflorescences, which obviously will not have time to give full fruits before the onset of frost. The remaining berries will not only ripen faster, but will also be larger and sweeter. With a one-year cultivation cycle of repairing varieties, all shoots are mowed annually at any convenient time from late autumn to early spring.
This minimizes the risk of disease and eliminates the need for chemical protective equipment. All dead parts of plants and weeds are removed from the site and destroyed. Freshly planted raspberry seedlings are prepared for wintering: they are wrapped with mulch and branches, covered with spruce branches to protect the fragile roots from freezing.
When caring for remont raspberries, it should be borne in mind that the intensive growth of green mass and prolonged fruiting quickly deplete the plants. Without regular replenishment of nutrients, the taste of berries deteriorates; they become smaller and ripen poorly.
Watering and fertilizer
Repairing varieties need regular watering throughout the summer period. The soil surface should be kept moist, irrigating the bushes weekly, and on hot dry days 2-3 times a week. The best result is the organization of a drip method of irrigation raspberry.
Top dressing is carried out monthly, combining them with watering. From organic fertilizers, a slurry solution is used in a ratio of 1:10 or bird droppings 1:20. To prepare the nutritional composition, 10 g of saltpeter, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 10 l of water. A bucket of prepared fertilizer is distributed on 1 linear meter or on watering 2-3 bushes. To prepare for wintering from autumn top dressing, nitrogen fertilizers are excluded.
Performing the correct pruning depends on the chosen method of growing remont raspberries. In temperate and cold climates, it is rare to get a high-quality second crop on last year's shoots and it usually does not have time to ripen, so it is recommended to use a one-year growing cycle with full cutting of the stems for the winter. After leaf fall, shoots are cut with a sharp secateurs, leaving stumps 1-3 cm high, and mulch the soil surface. The method is good in that, along with plant debris, pathogens are removed and there is no need to build shelters to protect from frost.
In the southern regions with a long warm autumn, the bushes have enough energy and time to form a full-fledged second crop, without prejudice to the first. Using a two-year method, you can achieve a longer continuous fruiting. At the same time, shaping pruning of remont raspberries is necessary, which involves a slight shortening of the side branches, which stimulates their branching and the formation of flower buds.
Important! Trimming the tops of the main shoots should not be, this will lead to better growth of the bush and increase productivity.
Repairing raspberries are propagated vegetatively in the same way as varietal, but it gives young shoots much less and grows weaker. There is also the possibility of propagation by seeds, but the likelihood of maintaining varietal traits of about 60% and a long growing period make this method ineffective compared to others.
The fastest and most gentle method of propagation of raspberries, used throughout the growing season. Pick sprouts that have reached no more than 25 cm in height. Dig them with part of the rhizome and immediately transplanted to a permanent place. To protect from direct sunlight from the southern, eastern and western sides of the beds, wooden shields are installed, shading seedlings for 2 weeks.
There are few such offspring of repairing varieties, so they practice a different way of obtaining them. In autumn or spring, the central branches along with part of the rhizome are cut down at the bush designated for propagation. The part that remains in the earth forms many offspring, which, as they grow up, they are used for planting.
Root cuttings are harvested in the fall. Dug rhizomes are cut into pieces 10-15 cm long. They can be planted immediately, covered with a spruce for winter to protect against freezing.If desired, root cuttings are prepared for spring planting.
The rhizome is not cut, but sprinkled with wet sawdust and sent for storage in the basement or cellar. During the winter, many growth buds will awaken and the amount of planting material will increase significantly.
For propagation, green cuttings up to 5 cm high, growing at the base of the rhizome, are suitable. They have the strength and energy sufficient to quickly build up their own root system. They are harvested in spring, cutting with a knife under the root to a depth of 3-5 cm, so as not to damage the uterine plant.
Sprouts are planted in the greenhouse to grow and shade. A month later, when the required number of roots is formed, transplanting seedlings to a permanent place.
Diseases and Pests
Resistance of remont raspberries to various diseases is higher than that of ordinary, but still it is necessary to provide additional protection. Strong immunity is formed in plants with proper care and adequate nutrition. Timely pruning provides bushes with access to lighting and air, preventing the occurrence of foci of infection. Placing plantings of repair varieties away from ordinary varieties protects them from damage by common pests of raspberries. It is necessary to carefully check the planting material before purchasing for the presence of insects and suspicious growths or tubercles on the roots and stems.
When feeding, you should not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers, which stimulate the growth of tender fleshy leaves, attracting a variety of caterpillars and aphids. If, despite preventive measures, insects are wound in the raspberry - mites, beetles, aphids, weevils, and other, damaged parts of plants are cut and burned. The bushes are treated with tincture of garlic or onion peels with the addition of laundry soap or dusted with wood ash. In advanced cases, chemical means of protection are used - Actellik, Confidor and others.
For preventive purposes, spring and autumn carry out spraying of plantings with Bordeaux liquid. Insects, damaging plants, can bring into the wounds of pathogens of fungal and viral infections, which are especially rapidly developing in inclement weather or in thickened plantings. When raspberries are damaged by chlorosis or curly, it is impossible to cure plants and they will have to be destroyed. In cases of infection with fungal infections, such as anthracosis, septoria and various spotting, spraying the bushes with Bordeaux liquid or nitrofen is used at the beginning of the growing season, before flowering and after picking berries. With severe damage, diseased plants are destroyed.
Repairing raspberry varieties serve as an excellent addition to ordinary raspberries in a summer cottage. Easier care, high productivity, long fruiting and variety variety allow you to pamper yourself with your favorite berry until late fall and create decorative compositions from colorful berry constellations in the garden.