Raspberry: variety selection, cultivation, care features to increase productivity
Raspberries are a product and medicine that has been used by people for several thousand years. The plant does not require special care or breeding technology. But with proper agricultural practices, you can always get a high yield of berries from the bushes. In the article you will find information on how to grow raspberries in the open ground and in the greenhouse.
Outdoor cultivation technology, care features
Planting and planting raspberries is very simple. The culture is able to grow and bear fruit, even if you take care of it in a minimal amount. The key elements to successfully growing raspberries are:
- careful selection of varietal material;
- site selection;
- shrub care method.
If everything is done correctly, then you will be provided with a stable crop for 10 years. Choosing from classic and repairing varieties - purchase the latter.
- They have several advantages:
- fruiting - 2 times a year;
- the life cycle of the main pests of the culture coincides with the stages of vegetation of the classic varieties, and the repair plants bloom a week later, therefore they are almost not attacked by harmful insects.
Most varieties are intended for cultivation in 3-10 zones of frost resistance. The third zone includes the Urals and Eastern Siberia with minimum winter temperatures up to -40 ° С, the fourth - the Moscow Region (-35 ° С), and the ninth - the Black Sea coast of Crimea (-7 ° С). You will have to choose the variety that can be cultivated in your climate zone. Also pay attention to the degree of plant protection from diseases. The colder the region in winter, the higher it should be.
Did you know? The ancient Greeks first discovered raspberry bushes on Mount Ida. Hence the Greek name of the plant — "Ideus."
Raspberries reproduce by processes that form on the creeping root system. Therefore, the site for it should be quite spacious. By planting just a couple of shoots this year, you will get up to 7 new shoots next year (in the same place). Keep a distance of about 1 m between rows, the width of which should correspond to the dimensions of the bushes.
The plant “hates” wetlands and stagnation of moisture at the roots. If your clay soil is poorly permeable to water, make a high bed. This is a structure that is raised to a height of 20-30 cm above the ground. It is convenient in areas where long rains begin in the fall, from which the roots can get wet.
The bed is made in the form of a box of wood, plastic, metal, other material and is filled with soil mix of the following composition:
- 3/5 of the sheet land (top layer of garden soil);
- 1/5 part of the sand;
- 1/5 part of peat or rotted manure.
Raspberry prefers neutral soils with an acidity level of around 6.0 pH. If the soil is acidic, then prepare the bed six months before planting, adding slaked lime (300 g / m²) there. Do not plant bushes where tomatoes, peppers or potatoes grew before. Fungi that infect these plants can also destroy raspberries.
Red raspberries are widespread in all regions of Europe, Asia and North America. But besides it, there are many varieties with yellow, black, white and purple berries. They perfectly bear fruit and interbreed with each other. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant varieties with dark and light fruits nearby. Between such plants make a distance of at least 3 m.
The work of modern breeders is aimed at get plant species as resistant to diseases and cold climate as possible. North American varieties have thinner shoots.They are better adapted to northern conditions than European ones. Black raspberries are usually of American origin. It is less frost-resistant than red, but is great for growing in central Russia.
By the method of fruiting, classic varieties and repair ones are distinguished. The first yield one crop per year - in the summer. The second ones are bicyclic and bear fruit twice. In summer, crops yield shoots of the second year of growth, and closer to autumn, those that appeared in the spring of this year.
According to the maturity period, there are:
- late varieties.
But there is no clear border in the number of days that it takes to ripen the crop. Therefore, an additional scale arose: mid-early and mid-late. These are varieties that cannot be clearly entered into one of the groups.
Raspberry flowering occurs in May in the southern regions or early June in central Russia. Fruiting will begin in late June. These will be the early varieties.
Mid-early plants will be pleased with the harvest by the end of June (in the third decade). Medium will ripen until the end of July. And those that ripen, starting from the third decade of July until the beginning of August, are considered medium late.
Did you know? They began to grow raspberries in Russia in the 11th century in monastery gardens. The drink, which was made from raspberries with cranberries and drank in the morning like tea, was called a "broth."
The group of mid-ripening varieties is the most extensive. To name the best of them is rather difficult, but you can list the most popular:
Late-ripening varieties are called that ripen from mid-August to mid-September. For the same period of time, ripening of the crop of the repairing varieties on the annual shoots of this year falls. Listing late-ripening varieties is more difficult than other groups. The reason is simple: in some sources the same varieties are indicated as medium-late. Like Tarusa, for example.
Repairing - these are varieties that can produce 2 crops per year. In June or July, shoots of the second year of development bear fruit. And in August, annual shoots begin to bear fruit. Some farmers remove seedlings from these varieties without leaving them in their second year. In this case, the crop will have only one crop - at the end of summer.
Important! Despite the benefits and excellent taste, raspberries cannot be given to children under 1 year old, and from 1 to 3 years old - in very small quantities (due to the risk of diathesis).
Representatives of the repairing varieties:
Landing in the open in autumn and spring
From the nursery, plants go on sale with “dry roots”. Be sure to soak the rhizome before planting in a growth stimulator for 6 hours. The drug should contain vitamin B1. This will contribute to a better development of the root system, and will also positively affect the development of the plant as a whole. Store seedlings in a cool place before planting. But it will be right if you plant the plants on the day of acquisition.
How to bookmark a raspberry
Form raspberries in two ways:
The first is convenient if you have only a few bushes. When planting several dozen plants, it is more convenient to place them in rows. Lay rows in the north-south direction. This improves the coverage of each individual shoot.
The best time for planting is early spring. Although you can plant bushes in the summer. Nevertheless, spring plants grow better and bear fruit more actively the next year.
Choosing the right place
Pick a sunny area with well-drained soil. It should not be located in a lowland where moisture and cold air can stagnate. Experienced gardeners advise choosing a site so that from the north the plants are covered by a wind barrier. It can be a fence, a fence, a wall of a building or trees. The minimum distance between the protective cordon and a number of bushes is not less than 50 cm. The slope of the site should be small or absent altogether so that moisture evenly reaches all the plants.Groundwater level - lower than 1.5 m from the surface.
Be sure to remove the weeds. Dig the soil to a depth of 30 cm and remove stones, sticks from it. Break large clods of earth
Buy manure. If it is fresh, then before making it must lie down for at least 6 months. In order not to burn the roots, when planting, use only stale, rotted manure or bird droppings. Application rate: 4 kg / m². If you use industrial fertilizers, then for planting you will need a mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium with a percentage of parts: 4-20-20. Also prepare material for mulching. This can be straw, sawdust, wood chips, pine needles, film materials.
Important! Raspberries have antipyretic and diaphoretic properties. Therefore, do not use it before going outside in the heat, so as not to increase the secretion of sweat.
Step-by-step landing instructions:
- Dig holes with a depth and width of about 30 cm. Plant plants at a distance of 0.8–1.0 m from each other.
- Place a piece of manure or other fertilizer mixed with soil in each pit.
- Pour in 0.5 buckets of water.
- Set the seedling in the center, straightening the roots.
- Add soil, tamp.
- Cover the root zone with mulch.
Selection and preparation of planting material
A good crop also depends on the quality of the planting material. The seedling is a strong trunk with a powerful root system. The diameter of the trunk is about 1 cm. The height is at least 40 cm. The diameter of the root ball is about 15 cm. The trunk should be flat, straight, without damage. Roots - without growths and signs of rot (if you cut the root, then it should be white).
How to care for raspberries, seasonal features
Plant care consists of:
- regular watering;
- fertilizer application;
- disease prevention;
- pruning shoots.
Watering, top dressing
Raspberries definitely need irrigation. This will allow the farmer to get larger berries and a higher yield. The amount of water required depends on the type of soil and the climate of the region. Desired irrigation system - drip. It is pretty easy to install. It will save water consumption. In addition, water will not get on leaves or branches, and the absence of moisture on plants is one of the ways to prevent diseases.
Did you know? Russia is the largest supplier of raspberries in the world. It produces and supplies to the world market a year about 125 thousand tons of these wonderful berries.
Irrigation rules in the absence of drip irrigation:
- Water the earth around the base of the bush, not the plant itself. This will prevent rot and disease.
- Saturate the soil with moisture, but do not fill it so that water "stands" on the surface.
- Lay a layer of mulch around the base of the shrub to prevent evaporation of moisture, weed growth and compaction of the soil.
- Start watering raspberries in spring and end in autumn when autumn rains begin.
- During the growing season, most moisture should be given before flowering begins. It is at this moment that a reserve of nutrients for future fruits is laid.
Raspberries grow best in well-drained fertile soil. Improve drainage and fertility by adding organic matter. It can be manure, compost, bird droppings. They are brought in before landing. If industrial inorganic fertilizers are used, then take into account that the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be the same. For example, 10-10-10 (%). The following year, raspberries are fed at least twice during the growing season: in March and in May. Inorganic fertilizer application rate per season: 9–10 kg per 100 m² plot.
Plants need a significant amount of nitrogen to grow. But they make it only during the March feeding. It can be 100 g of ammonium nitrate, made under each bush. After flowering, nitrogen is not needed. And it is excluded from the composition of fertilizers after flowering, since plants should concentrate on the “production” of fruits, not leaves.
Loosening, weed removal
Weeds in the garden - it not only looks bad in terms of aesthetics. They compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. If you do not cover the root zone with mulch, then you will have to remove weeds in a day. They grow quickly, especially after rain. The depth of cultivation of the soil is up to 10-15 cm. A garden hoe is suitable for this. But you need to use it carefully so as not to damage the bushes. Weeds with a root root are manually removed from wet soil, and with creeping, they are cut with a plane cutter.
Mulch for coating may be straw, wood chips, sawdust, cardboard and other materials. The sawdust layer can be about 3-5 cm thick. During the summer, this layer is periodically updated, adding a new one, since the lower layer will decompose, enriching the soil with humus.
Pruning in spring and autumn
The main purpose of pruning is to get rid of old shoots, providing the opportunity to grow new. At the end of summer, the shoots of the first year of development begin fruiting in the upper part. In early spring, they are cut or left for June fruiting in the repairing varieties.
A common raspberry pruning method is simply to cut all branches to about 2–5 cm above the ground. But if you trim the repairing varieties in this way, then there will be no harvest at the beginning of summer. Therefore, shoots are cut on them for the part that proclaimed in late summer of the previous year. Fruiting in July on them will occur in the central part. And next spring they need to be cut out completely.
Bushes with a height of more than 1.5 m must be tied up. Raspberry branches are quite fragile, they can break under gusts of wind. Therefore, the trellis performs several functions simultaneously. Reliably fixed branches will be evenly lit by the sun and blown by the wind, which is good for disease prevention, berries will not fall off from them and it will be convenient to look after them, to harvest.
Tapestry Making. At the edges of the row, support posts are installed. They are placed in soil to a depth of about 0.5 m. An additional 1.5 m column should remain above the soil surface. In long rows, support pillars are placed along the length of the row through each meter. In the middle and in the upper part of the supports pull the wire. Use soft tissue cuts for garter. They should not pinch the trunk, so as not to impede its development.
When Raspberries Ripen
Raspberries demanding heat. Her kidneys will begin to bloom no earlier than the thermometer column begins to show stable + 10 ° С. In different regions, this temperature is set at different times:
- on the Black Sea coast - in March;
- in the Moscow Region, St. Petersburg and most of the territories of central Russia - in April;
- in the North - not earlier than May.
This becomes the first starting point. It is counted from it approximately 35–56 days before flowering begins. The specific number of days depends on the variety and species: the early ones need 37 days, the rest need more. About a month will be needed to ripen the fruit.
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How to increase fruiting
The size of the berries and the volume of the crop are influenced by several factors:
- top dressing;
Raspberries love water. Moisture has a major effect on the size and taste of berries. Water in sufficient quantities every 3-4 days. To better soak the soil, divide the watering into 2 parts and water it with an interval of 1 hour.
Always try to use organic fertilizers. They are released gradually, providing the plant with nutrition on demand. Raspberry spends a lot of energy on fruiting, so without feeding, the crop will be much lower.
If you want the berries to be large, juicy and sweet, you must definitely provide the plant with water, nutrition and choose the correct pruning method for your varieties.
If you cut off the branches of the second year on the repairing varieties, then this also reduces the yield.Although some gardeners note that at the same time they increase their yield on the shoots of the first year. It is also necessary to shorten tall varieties. Stretched to 2–2.5 m, the shoot will not increase fruiting, but will reduce it, since a lot of energy will be spent on developing the shoot itself.
Raspberry roots tend to “spill over”. therefore the main method of plant propagation is with new shootsthat grow from an overgrown rhizome in unoccupied territories. It does not really matter at what distance bushes grow from each other. After some time, the plants will begin to develop free space. You can weed out sprouts that appeared in the wrong place or purposefully dig them out and plant them in a row, like new plants. This is the most common way to get new bushes.
But, unfortunately, the rhizome lives no more than 20 years. At the same time, the yield of the resulting shoots decreases over time. To restore it, you need to plant new plants. To do this, cut off an annual powerful shoot, cut it into cuttings, root them in a mixture of nutrient soil and sand. And then planted in a constant place of growth. Only Landing area should choose another - due to the depletion of soil by previous plants and its saturation with insect pests and fungal spores.
Diseases and Pests
Disease prevention begins with damage prevention. Bacteria and viruses enter plant tissues through them. Damage can occur from cracking leaves with pests, wind, animals. Therefore, it is important to start disease prevention with the destruction of pests.
The main pests of raspberries:
Raspberry diseases are affected by virus insects, weather and growing conditions for bushes. The presence of weeds, thickening and poor air circulation will contribute to the spread of disease. Improper watering increases the likelihood of illness.. Waterlogged soil prevents the absorption of nutrients by the roots. Rotting of the root system may occur and the plant will die. Therefore, control the conditions in which raspberries grow. Eliminate the disadvantages of agricultural technology, and you will reduce the likelihood of a disease by 50%.
Important! To protect raspberries from pests, plant marigolds in the aisles. Most insect pests do not tolerate essential oils of acutely smelling plants.
Signs of the appearance of fungal diseases are spots on the leaves. For prevention and treatment, raspberries are sprayed with copper-based preparations: Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate. For treatment, the treatment is repeated with an interval of 7 days. Diseases of a viral nature are not treated. Such bushes are dug up and burned away from the site. At the site of the excavated plant, nothing is planted for several years. The exact period will depend on the duration of preservation of the pathogen in the soil.
Raspberry life span
The raspberry bush distinguishes the life span of the shoots and root. The root lives about 20 years. Shoots - only 2 years. In the first year, a repair shoot will yield crops in late summer. Fruits will be placed in its upper part. The next year, flowering will occur in the middle. In the third year, such an escape can grow, but it will not bear fruit. Therefore, after fruiting, these shoots are removed.
After 20 years, the root system and the area where raspberries grow are depleted. Therefore, gardeners recommend periodically changing the location of raspberry cultivation.
Greenhouse cultivation all year round
Raspberry is a high-value crop, perfect for year-round cultivation in greenhouses. She is always in demand and loyal to the conditions. Bushes do not require auxiliary lighting and develop well in cool conditions.. The greenhouse temperature + 21 ° C is optimally suited for the good development and fruiting of the berry shrub.If in doubt, remember that raspberries belong to the same family with roses, and they have long been grown in greenhouses.
Raspberry seedlings can be purchased in the nursery or grown from their varieties, if any, on your site in open ground. Before planting, clear the soil of weeds. Plan to plant raspberries in early spring. Arrange rows moving from north to south so that they do not obscure each other. If you want to use the trellis, then you need to install it before planting, so as not to damage the plants later. In small greenhouses, planting and cultivation can take place in bulky pots.
Use a drip irrigation system. Inspect the soil weekly for moisture and water if necessary. After three months, start adding additional fertilizer to the soil.
The plant needs full daylight. therefore the greenhouse should not be obscured by trees. Raspberries do not need high levels of illumination, however, maintenance lighting is necessary throughout the winter season. This will enhance growth, flowering and, finally, productivity. Increase the winter daylight hours to 16 hours.
Raspberries need 200 hours of winter dormancy to move on to the next vegetative cycle. At this time, the temperature should not exceed + 4 ° C. Keep this in mind when planning work in the greenhouse. Flowering begins about 6 weeks after the bushes wake up and leaves appear. Fruits will ripen in 10 weeks. Harvesting will last about 8 weeks. At this time, the berries will ripen gradually, they need to be harvested once every few days.
With the onset of cold weather you have to remove the fallen leaves from the garden. Most of the larvae lie for wintering in the near-trunk zone. Therefore her dig to a depth of 20 cm. Winter thaws can be dangerous for all shrubs. Soil freezing and thawing cycles push the roots to the surface and contribute to their damage.
To exclude such a situation, after the soil freezes, it is covered with mulch. It will serve as an insulating layer that will “smooth out” the temperature differences in the soil and will maintain a stable temperature level.
In regions with cold winters, it is recommended that shoots be removed from the trellis. Then they are bent to the ground and covered with a layer of mulch. They successfully wintered under the snow, and in the spring they will again be raised to the trellis
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting begins in June for early varieties, in July for medium varieties and in late July or early August for late varieties. The collection takes about 3 weeks. Pick berries every other day. It is preferable to do this in the early morning, as they are kept chilled longer.
Raspberries are very fragile, therefore collection is carried out in plastic containers with a volume of 200-400 g in order to maintain the shape of the berries and not crush those that are below. Store them in a cool place until processed or consumed.
On an industrial scale, mechanized berries are used. Such a collection is planned at night, so that the fruits are as chilled as possible. When planning the mechanization of processes, do not forget that you will need to immediately plant plants with a row spacingdesigned for the passage of the combine harvester. Also note that not all varieties are suitable for mechanized harvesting, but only with lateral fruiting.
Berries can not be stored for a long time. Their shelf life in the refrigerator does not exceed 1 week. You can eat them fresh, freeze them or process them into jams or juices for winter consumption.
Raspberry growing can be beneficial both in open and in closed ground. Get varieties resistant to diseases, follow basic agricultural requirements and then the yield will be high and stable.