Breeds of sheep of a woolly direction: characteristics, description
Today, breeders have bred many sheep breeds, so livestock breeders have a huge selection. These animals are bred for several purposes: to obtain meat, wool, milk. Depending on the intended purpose, all breeds of sheep are divided into meat, meat-wool and wool. The article contains a description of the most popular sheep of the wool direction.
As the name implies, woolly sheep are raised for wool. They bring little meat and milk. Most of them are characterized by high fertility rates - above 110%. The fleece of the described animals is dense, closed, of light shades, of varying degrees of tortuosity, thickness and length. The average fiber thickness is 25–27 microns.
Its quality is marked 60–80 class. The average annual cut for wool rams is 15–17 kg, for sheep - 6–8 kg. Most wool breeds have well-defined folds on the neck - from 1 to 3 pieces. Their skin is thick. The level of fat loss is 20–40%. The average weight for wool is 80–90 kg for sheep and 45–50 kg for sheep.
All woolly sheep in sheep breeding, depending on the quality and thickness of the obtained fleece, are divided into 4 types:
Fine-fleeced sheep give a light, almost white coat with a uniform composition, almost 100% fluff. They have a high fat content. The fiber diameter is thin, reaches up to 25 microns. The wool yield is 20–50%. When cutting, it is removed with a solid rune. This species includes the Rambouillet, Prekos, Kazakh, Krasnoyarsk, Transbaikal, Askanian and Merino breeds, which are today considered the best among all woolly and fine-wool sheep.
Did you know? Today, 2 places of origin of fine-fleece sheep are called: Asia Minor and Spain. There is evidence that those who tried to take fine wool beyond the Spanish borders exposed themselves to the danger of being executed. For the first time, the British managed to carry out a dangerous and illegal measure.
This is due to the quality of the rune - it is thin and soft. Wool from it withstands large temperature differences and has antibacterial properties. It is actively used by manufacturers in the manufacture of special thermal clothing for athletes, people leading an active lifestyle in winter, lovers of fishing and hunting in the winter. It can be worn at temperatures from +10 to –30 ° C.
Animals of this direction were obtained from crossing fine-fleeced and coarse-haired sheep. They give wool, uniform in composition, consisting of coarse fibers and thin transitional. Their average diameter reaches 25 microns. The quality of the fineness is 36–58. It is used to make high quality fabrics. Semi-felted sheep, depending on the breeding goals, are divided into meat-wool and woolly-meat. Longhair (10 cm and longer) and short-haired (up to 10 cm) are distinguished along the length of the fiber.Kuibyshev, Gorky, Tsigaysky, North Caucasus, Tien Shan, Soviet meat-and-wool breeds are ranked as semi-fine-crowned.
This type gives wool, which includes spruce, fluff and transitional hair. She is heterogeneous. Sheep of this direction are grouped into 5 groups: fur-meat, smushkoy, meat-fat, meat-wool-milk, meat-wool. The most common coarse-grained rocks are Romanovskaya, Karakul, Edilbaevskaya, Gissar, Karachaevskaya.
This species includes animals with semi-rough hair, heterogeneous in composition. They have high meat and greasy productivity, and they are well adapted for living in mountainous and desert areas. The wool of these sheep is white.
Did you know? Merino wool is 5 times thinner than a human hair. Elektoral sheep breed fibers are 8 times thinner.
It holds a large amount of transitional hair, fluff and a shallow awn. The structure of the rune is inert. The coat is softer and finer than that of coarse-haired animals. It is used in the production of blankets, carpets, faux fur, fabrics.
We offer you to get acquainted with the description and productive characteristics of the most popular sheep of the wool direction.
This breed was obtained from the crossing of the New Caucasian sheep with the Ramboulier. As a result of breeding work, large animals with a strong physique and high weight were obtained. The champions reach a mass of 147 kg. The average Soviet merino weighs 96–122 kg. There are 1-2 distinct folds on the neck of the rams.The main positive characteristics of these sheep are long hair (7.5–10 cm), excellent annual shearing and high fecundity (120–130 lambs / 100 individuals). Among the Soviet merinos, two types are distinguished: woolly and woolly-meat. The meat productivity of the sheep of the described breed is low.
Australian merino obtained from American Vermont and French Rambouillet. Today there are 3 types: fine (without folds, weighing 70 kg), medium (with 2-3 folds, weighing 75–85 kg) and strong (80–95 kg), which differ in body weight and the presence of folds on the skin.
Did you know? Merino wool has healing properties. It is recommended to use it to improve the condition of arthritis, radiculitis, pain in the spine and joints. In ancient times, linen was made from it for people suffering from serious illnesses and children who were born prematurely.
The average weight of a sheep is up to 70–80 kg, and an ewe is 40–50 kg. Merino wool is dyed white. It is soft and gentle, characterized by high quality. The fiber thickness is 16 microns.
Askanian Merinos recognized as the best among fine-fleece sheep due to high productivity and fertility. They were bred in the reserve Askania-Nova (Ukraine) in 1925–34. by breeding local breeds from the Rambouillet. These animals are large, with a strong skeleton, 1-2 folds. Females reach a weight of 58–65 kg, males - 110–120 kg. The Askanian merino wool is white, even, curled. The fiber thickness is 20.6–26.3 μm.
The birthplace of the Grozny merino is Dagestan. It was here that work was carried out on crossing local breeds and Australian merino. The produced sheep is very similar in appearance to the Australian breed. She has a thick, soft, even and long white coat. Animals are not very heavy - they reach 70–90 kg. They are distinguished by a powerful physique and a strong constitution. They have high quality grease. Fertility of uterus is 130-145 babies per 100 individuals.
Breeders worked for almost 20 years to obtain merinos that could live in the harsh climatic conditions of Siberia, crossing Siberian breeds with American rambulls, Grozny, and Caucasian breeds. New animals were called Altai.
They turned out with a strong constitution, a massive body weighing up to 100 kg, with 1-2 neck folds. Their fleece is of moderate length - 6.5–7.5 cm. It is average in density. It is characterized by small tortuosity. The uterus is very prolific (120-150%).
The materials for creating the breed were the Novokavkazsky, Australian, Grozny merino and American rambull. They were crossed in Stavropol. The new sheep turned out to be strong, with a large weight. Males weighed 110–115 kg, and females weighed 50–55 kg. On their neck they have 2-3 folds. The coat is long - 8-14 cm. It is white in color. Her structure is staple. The quality is excellent. Sheep productivity is very high. Fertility of the uterus is 130-140 babies.
One of the most ancient Central Asian breeds. The Karakul breed belongs to the coarse greasy-tailed smush and milk direction.It is grown for the purpose of obtaining astrakhan and astrakhan. Females reach a weight of up to 50 kg, males - up to 90 kg. Animals are very hardy and undemanding to feed. They give tasty milk. Their coat is coarse. Primary colors - black, red, gray. Uterine fertility is 130–140%.
The breed was bred during the Middle Ages in Georgia. Here lived an ethnographic group of Georgians called carcasses. The breed belongs to the coarse-haired species. Animals have a strong skeleton, harmonious constitution, and average weight. Females weigh 35–40 kg, males weigh 60–70 kg.
The wool of the sheep is white, long. It mainly consists of fluff. It also contains spine and transitional hair. Wool is used to make carpets and fabrics. In addition to wool, Tushino sheep are raised for tasty meat.
The homeland of Tsigai sheep is Asia Minor. Today they are bred in order to obtain meat and wool. They also give a lot of milk (110–120 kg), from which cheese and cheese are produced. Animals are large in size. They have a dry constitution. Adult females weigh 40–45 kg, males weigh 75–85 kg. Slaughter yield is 50–55%. Wool of white color, high-quality. It is thick and durable. Used to make fur clothes.
Kuibyshev breed belongs to the semi-fine-crowned species and meat-and-wool direction. These are large hornless animals, reaching a mass of 65–110 kg. Their coat is shiny and uniform, long. Painted in white. The meat is tasty, soft, odorless lamb. Slaughter yield - 60%. The breed is characterized by a high level of fertility - 120-130%.
This breed of woolly meat direction was bred in 1936 in the Stavropol Territory from the Novokavkazskoye and Mazaevskoye Merino, as well as American rambuli. The animals have a good large physique, high growth. They are distinguished by endurance, good adaptive abilities.
Mature females reach a weight of up to 65 kg, males - up to 130 kg. The positive characteristics of “Caucasians” include the high fecundity of females, high-quality wool in large quantities, increased milk yield, and adaptability to a dry climate with frequent droughts.
The breed belongs to the fur coat direction, coarse-haired appearance. Bred in the XVII century. in Russia by natural selection. Females weigh about 55 kg, rams - 75 kg. Romanovsky sheep is distinguished by a strong skeleton, medium height, pronounced musculature, and the absence of horn. The hair of animals is high-quality, thick, 60–90 microns thick. It is used for making clothes and in felting.
Romanovsk sheep are raised not only for wool, but also high-quality meat. Slaughter yield is 50%. In addition, animals are characterized by increased fertility - 230-270%. By crossing them with other breeds, breeders are trying to improve the quality of coarse-haired sheep.
Belongs to the coarse-haired type. Animals grow medium in size. The weight of one individual is 55–65 kg. It can be black, brown, gray, beige. The fiber sheared from Pomeranian sheep is used to make yarn in felt production. The meat of lambs of this breed is appreciated by gourmets as a delicacy due to the excellent delicate taste. Fertility of females is 140%.
One of the oldest English breeds, which until today has not lost popularity among sheep farmers. It is classified as a semi-fine-crowned type and meat-and-wool direction. Adult rams weigh 100–120 kg each, sheep weigh 70–80 kg. They have a very long coat, characterized by uniformity. Her color is white. Among the advantages of the breed are early maturity, harmonious physique, high productivity and fertility, good yield of wool and meat. The main disadvantage is the exactingness of living conditions and feed.
Females of this popular Spanish breed reach a height at the withers of 80 cm and a weight of 90 kg.Males grow to 1 m and 125–160 kg. Productive indicators of this meat-and-wool breed are high. Slaughter yield is 48–53%. The meat is distinguished by tenderness, juiciness, lack of a specific smell.
Wool of white color, 26–28 microns thick. Quality indicators are high. Merinoland sheep are appreciated because of their unpretentiousness, endurance, early maturity, and a good level of meat and wool productivity. They are suitable for growing on pastures and in pens.
The wool productivity of sheep is determined by the volume of shearing and obtaining pure wool, as well as the qualitative characteristics of the fibers.
The table shows the parameters of the shearing of the described sheep breeds:
|Sheep breed||The volume of nastrig per year, kg||The yield of pure fiber,%|
Which breeds have the longest hair
If you are interested in wool length indicators, here are 10 breeds in which it is the longest:
- Australian Merino - 15–20 cm;
- Grozny Merino - 10 cm;
- Stavropol - 8-14 cm;
- Karakulskaya - 8–20 cm;
- Tushinskaya - 12–25 cm;
- Kuibyshevskaya - 12-14 cm;
- Kuchugurovskaya - 12 cm;
- Tashlinskaya - 11-12 cm;
- Lincoln - 20–38 cm;
- Degeresskaya - 13-17 cm.
Rules and Features
Coated breeds, as a rule, do not require much time for care and any special conditions of detention. Most of them are unpretentious animals. Each of the sheep breeds has its own characteristics of content, degree of endurance, preferences in the way of living.
General are the requirements for a shepherd - it must be insulated, with a warm floor, without drafts, but with good ventilation, dry. The temperature in winter should not drop below + 6 ... + 8 ° С. The room should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. Straw can be used as bedding.
Important! The quality of food directly affects the condition of the coat. When animals eat only pasture, their level of fat loss decreases, mats form, hair dying occurs.
The shepherd should be equipped with feeders, drinking bowls, nurseries. Animals need a daily walk. It is necessary to expel sheep in a pasture in a cool time when the dew dries. Otherwise, wet hair can cause illness. As for nutrition, the diet of woolly sheep should contain green feed, hay, mixed fodder, silage, root crops, mineral salt, grain, fresh vegetables.A prerequisite is the presence of a large amount of clean water. An adult animal needs at least a bucket of water per day. Haircuts of fine-woolen and semi-fine-worn animals are produced once a year in spring. Coarse-haired and semi-coarse-haired are sheared twice a year - in autumn and spring. Haircut is done with scissors, manual or electric machine.The sequence of sheep shearing. So, today there are many breeds of wool direction, from which you can get high-quality and healthy wool every year. Before deciding on any of them, you should familiarize yourself with the preferences of the animals, the necessary living conditions and feeding.