Features raspberries varieties Tatyana
Raspberries are a popular crop grown in private gardens and on farmland. Its fruits are surprisingly tasty and healthy berries, used both for culinary and in therapeutic, cosmetic purposes. If you choose the most unpretentious and persistent species with good productivity for planting on the site, pay attention to the raspberry variety Tatyana, which combines all these wonderful qualities.
Raspberry variety Tatyana - the result of the work of Russian breeders who brought the plant as adapted as possible to the climatic conditions of both the northern and southern regions. “Parents” are such varieties as the Beauty of Russia, Patricia, as well as some Scottish species. The date of creation of the culture is considered to be 1993, but due to the fact that raspberries were not declared as a variety, there is no official record of it in the state register.
Raspberry Tatyana is represented by tall bushes up to 2 m high, each of which gives about 12 strong erect stems, forming a neat compact crown. A special advantage is the absence of thorns, which greatly simplifies harvesting. The leaves of the shrub are small in size, dark green, with frequent teeth along the edges. The sheet plate has a corrugated surface with a sparse pile.
Raspberry berries are bright red, slightly elongated, heart-shaped fruits, have a juicy pulp of dense consistency and a thin skin with a slight hairiness. The size of the berries is significant - the weight of one fruit, with good care, can reach 25 g. Taste - pleasant sweet, with a slight acidity, which eliminates sugary well.
Did you know? Raspberry has an antitoxic effect. — it significantly accelerates the elimination of harmful substances from the body. Traditional healers use it as a sobering agent.
It is worth noting the chemical composition of the fruit - this is a real storehouse of useful biological substances. It contains a complex of vitamins, including groups A, E, B, K, and most of all vitamin C (ascorbic acidthat), for which raspberries got the glory of a good antipyretic. There are also many useful micro and macro elements in berries, such as potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, etc. Raspberries are rightly considered an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant.
Not only raspberry fruits deserve attention, but also leaves, and even twigs, which also contain many vitamins, trace elements and other healthy components. Especially there is a lot of ascorbic acid in them, so the leaves are collected in May, dried, and then brewed tea, which treats cough, sore throat, stomatitis.
Scientists have been piling over the cultivation of the raspberry variety Tatyana for several years, trying to give it the best characteristics. After passing the test period, when the growth of the culture was monitored with a description of all the advantages and disadvantages, it became clear that the work was done not in vain.
- The new culture took from its predecessors a lot of advantages, namely:
- prolonged fruiting;
- pleasant taste and benefits of berries;
- frost resistance;
- drought tolerance;
- lack of thorns;
- unpretentiousness in agricultural technology;
- the berries do not crumble;
- good immunity against diseases.
- Varieties also have disadvantages, although there are not many of them, these include:
- poor shelf life of berries - fresh raspberries need to be stored in a cool place, since under normal conditions it loses attractiveness for 6-8 hours;
- rapid growth of root shoots, which is why the shrub literally spreads over the site in a short time.
Drought and frost resistance
Raspberry Tatyana shows good resistance to dry periods, but not long. If in dry weather leave the bush without watering for more than a month, it may die.
The variety tolerates frosts well and winters quietly when the temperature drops to -25 ° C, being under snow cover. If the shrub is cultivated in a region with colder or less snowy winters, the plant must be covered for the winter. It is noteworthy that most frozen shoots can quickly recover in the spring.
Productivity and fruiting
The raspberry variety Tatyana is a mid-early variety with a long growing season. The ripening of the fruits is uneven and quite long - the harvest lasts from early June to August (some gardeners mistakenly take it for repair). With good care, up to 10 kg of berries are collected from 1 shrub per season.
Fields of application
Raspberry has a wide scope. In addition to the fact that its fresh berries are a great delicacy, they are also added to pastries, frozen for the winter. Raspberry jam has an incredibly pleasant taste and aroma, so many housewives cook it. Fruits often become the main ingredient in compotes, giving the drink a hint of garden and forest aroma.
Did you know? Raspberry juice and pulp are used in cosmetology for the preparation of anti-aging masks. The berry effectively fights against aging of the skin, gives it firmness and elasticity.
The fruits of culture are used in pharmacology - they are included in the register of medicinal raw materials. From berries in industrial conditions, a healthy aromatic syrup is prepared, which is added to drugs, improving their taste. What to say about traditional medicine? Here, raspberries are the most popular cure for many ailments.
Raspberries are processed not only on private farms, but also on an industrial scale, producing stunning jams, toppings for sweets, berry additives in various sweets.
Disease and pest resistance
Variety Tatyana - a hybrid of the third generation, in which a genetic opposition to various bacterial and fungal attacks has already been laid. Raspberry is not afraid of such ailments as bacterial cancer, anthracnose, has immunity against aphids.
The key to a good development of the culture and its abundant fruiting is proper planting. In general, there is nothing complicated in planting a raspberry bush, but some rules must be observed.
Raspberries can be planted in spring and autumn. If you are planning to plant a bush in spring, you need to wait until the earth warms up sufficiently to a temperature of at least + 5 ... + 7 ° С. In a temperate climate, this period falls approximately at the beginning or middle of April. Autumn planting is carried out a few weeks before frosts - at the end of October.
Choosing the right place
Raspberry is a photophilous culture. For planting it is better to choose a sunny area - with a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light, the fruits will be sweet and large. The site should be protected from drafts, as well as north and north-west winds.
Important! It is not recommended to plant raspberries in places where tomatoes, potatoes or strawberries used to grow, as crops have similar diseases that can be transmitted through the ground.
Raspberries love moisture, but they are afraid of waterlogged, swampy soils. Stagnant water in the ground can cause wilting of the root system and death of the shrub, and the stay of the crop in the area with close groundwater will lead to a deterioration in the quality of the fruit. It is better to choose a landing site on a small hill. Soils are preferred neutral or slightly acidic.
Preparing planting material
For planting, it is better to purchase seedlings in nurseries or from trusted sellers - it is more likely that you will buy the Tatyana variety.The material must be carefully inspected for damage - there should be no dry, broken stems.
A healthy seedling has well-developed roots with a length of about 25 cm, the thickness of the central shoot is approximately 1.5 cm. At least 2 healthy processes must leave the root system. If a shrub of this variety is already growing on the site, the material can be collected independently by separating young basal shoots together with an earthen lump.
There are two ways to plant raspberries: in single bushes and in rows. In the first case, a separate hole is dug under each bush, 40–50 cm deep and 30–40 cm in diameter. To avoid stagnation of moisture, it is better to equip the bottom with a drainage layer, laying crushed stone, expanded clay and sand in 3 layers (approximately 5 cm each ) Now the hole needs to be fertilized: part of the soil is mixed with 7-8 kg of rotted manure, 100-150 g of superphosphate and 70 g of potassium sulfate are added. The last two components can be replaced with 500 g of wood ash. The finished mixture is poured into the pit.
A small mound is formed from the soil, on top of which a seedling is placed, spreading the roots. Sprinkle the planting with soil and watered (8-10 l). It is necessary to ensure that after watering and shrinkage of the soil the root neck is located 2-3 cm above the ground. If you are planting several bushes, keep a distance of at least 1 m between them.
Second way - tape, involves digging a trench with a depth of about 45 cm and a width of 40-50 cm. If there are several rows, the distance between them should be about 1.5 m. As in the previous case, drainage is arranged at the bottom of the trench, after which fertilizers are applied mixed with soil. Now you need to form mounds for each bush, observing the distance between plants - at least 50 cm. Planted bushes sprinkled with soil and watered. At the final stage, the planting is mulched with peat, humus, dry soil.
After planting, the plant needs a particularly careful attitude by the gardener, which should help him adapt. The basic rules for caring for raspberries include:
- Watering. At the initial stage, watering should be regular (2-3 times a week for 8-10 liters per 1 bush), then their number is gradually reduced and renewed only in dry periods. During irrigation, it is advisable to loosen the soil so that moisture and oxygen better nourish the root system. Mulching the trunk area helps to preserve soil moisture.
- Top dressing. If during planting you have sufficiently fed the soil, the next portion of fertilizers can be applied no earlier than a year later. In spring, the soil is fed with nitrogen fertilizers, for example, urea solution (20 g per 10 l of water per 1 bush). You can also sprinkle the soil with a thin layer of manure, slightly digging it. During flowering, each bush is fed with a composition of 200 g of superphosphate, 1 tbsp of wood ash, diluted in 10 l of water. In autumn, simultaneously with digging, mineral phosphorus and potash fertilizers are introduced.
- Pruning. The two main trimmings are carried out in spring and autumn. In early spring, the bushes are freed from stems that have not survived the winter period - damaged and dried up, cut young shoots. In the autumn, last year's shoots, damaged, as well as those that began to grow inside the bush, are removed from the bush. In addition, raspberries must be observed throughout the season and periodically thin out the bushes, avoiding thickening.
- Support organization. The raspberry bushes Tatyana are tall, therefore, over time, they need to be supported. If the planting is single, stakes are driven in along its perimeter and the wire is pulled between them in several rows — this way the plant will look neat, and the stems of the bush will not bend to the ground during fruiting. For a trench landing, it is better to organize a trellis: on the edges of the beds are installed supports connected by several tiers of wire to which the shoots are tied.Ways of arranging trellis can be studied by numerous photo examples on online resources.
Pest and Disease Control
Variety Tatyana has a high immunity to diseases, so it rarely suffers from ailments. Sometimes viral diseases can occur - mosaic (scattered yellow spots on the leaves), curly raspberries. They fight diseases by spraying shrubs with fungicides, for example, Fundazol, Topaz.
Important! Do not spray with chemicals in hot weather. — this can cause burns to the plant. Processing is not recommended during rain, which will wash off a large percentage of the drug from the leaves.
The main insect that can harm the bush is stem gall midge. Her presence can be determined by the rounded bulges on the stems. Affected areas need to be cut, and the bush itself treated with chemicals "Fufanon", "Alatar".
As a preventative measure, raspberries are periodically processed by spraying with drugs, containing copper. Great for these purposes. 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid, Oxychom, Copper Chloride.
Preparation of raspberries for winter begins in October: shrubs are cut, weeds are weeded, all biological waste is collected and burned. Now the soil needs to be dug up and fertilizers applied at the same time. For a safe wintering, shrubs are sprayed with pests and diseases.
The raspberry variety Tatyana is frost-resistant, however, the root system hibernates well in frosts down to -25 ° C and while under snow. Since the climate often throws up unexpected “surprises”, it is difficult to guarantee such weather conditions. According to gardeners, it is better to take care and cover the bushes. The soil is mulched with peat, humus or sawdust. It is better to bend the bushes to the ground, fix and cover with straw, spruce branches from above.
Harvesting and storage
The ripened berries of raspberry Tatiana are easily removed during the harvest. A big plus is that the fruits practically do not crumble, waiting for them to be removed, which makes it possible to harvest with minimal losses. However, the berries are quite fragile, so you need to pick them carefully. It is better to do this in dry weather - wet fruits are stored much worse, quickly lose their original appearance.
As a container, a basket or a shallow basket is best suited - such a container has openings that will create ventilation. The fruits are stacked in no more than several tiers so that the raspberries do not choke on their own weight. Each layer can be shifted with leaves.
Fresh raspberries are stored at room temperature for no more than 8 hours. To preserve the berries for longer, they are laid out in wide containers and put in the refrigerator - there they can arrive for 7-10 days without losing their original freshness. If transportation of the crop is required, it is better to pick berries with the stem. On a farm scale, raspberries are transported in special boxes at a temperature of + 4 ... + 5 ° C.
To save raspberries for a longer period, it can be frozen or dried (in the sun or in the oven), make preparations for the winter in the form of preserves, compotes. Mistresses often prefer to grind raspberries with sugar - so she retains her fresh taste and supply of nutrients. Raspberries are washed, dried, crushed (twisted), mixed with sugar in a ratio of 1: 2, laid out in clean cans, tightly closed with lids and sent for storage to a cool place.
Summing up, we can confidently say that the raspberry variety Tatyana is one of the most successful for planting in a personal plot. The undemanding plant, as well as its resistance to the negative influence of weather conditions, allows you to achieve excellent productivity with minimal effort and time.