Gooseberry green early Ural emerald: main characteristics
Excellent taste and an unlimited supply of benefits for the human body do not leave indifferent any gardener indifferent to gooseberries. Knowing such a popularity of culture, breeders are not asleep: they are introducing new varieties, given the key needs and wishes of gardeners. One of the popular gooseberry varieties is the Ural Emerald, which has its endurance, ease of care, high yield of fruits with excellent taste.
Variety description Ural Emerald
A universal varietal variety of gooseberry, which is quite common in garden plots.
A relatively young variety: entered in the State Register in 2000 The result of selection work, which was carried out at the Chelyabinsk South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato.
Did you know? Gooseberries were brought into our region from Italy, where it was called the “northern grape”. This name is the biggest praise, because the Italians compared the wild shrub with the “gift of the gods” - grapes.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening dates
Despite the fact that gooseberries were created for the harsh Siberian climate with a short summer, it became a favorite in almost all Russian regions. "Ural Emerald" meets all the characteristics that are declared by breeders. It is a self-fertile early variety of universal application.
Gooseberries are recognized by the following description:
- medium-sized (up to 1.5 m), compact, dense and well-branched bushes.Bushes do not need a lot of space on the site, as they are not wide;
- the green color of thin young shoots, with a thick structure and light brown color of lignified perennial shoots covered with spikes. Spikes are present along the entire length of the shoots, except for their tops. They can be single, double and triple. The length of the spikes varies between 7–9 cm, so pick the berries carefully so as not to scratch your hands and damage the clothes. Bushes of the Ural emerald are medium prickly;
- five-lobed with wavy edges with wrinkled cloves of foliage, painted in dark green and coated with gloss characteristic of gooseberries. Leaves are heterogeneous in size: there are small, medium and large;
- dull pink, inconspicuous, large single inflorescences, which self-pollinate by 39.8%. But, at the same time, the presence of other gooseberry varieties on the site is welcome. In almost every inflorescence, a fruit is tied;
- large, oval-shaped berries. The peel of the fruit is thin, despite this, they are very light: fresh berries can be stored for 5 days, but they must be divided into small portions of up to 2 kg, in cool, well-ventilated conditions. If you pick berries that have not reached full ripeness, then they can be stored for 10 days. The color of the fruit is green. They tolerate transportation well, even over long distances;
- sweet or sour-sweet pulp. The sugar content of berries is 9.3%, and the acidity is 2.2%. Due to the indicated sugar / acidity ratio, the berries received a high tasting score of 5 points;
- the size of the berries, which range from medium to large. They weigh between 3.5-7.5 g. Through their thin skin, the yellowish flesh and seeds are clearly visible;
- early ripening: berries are harvested in late June - early July. Young shrubs begin to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting.
Important! Gooseberries must be picked in dry weather and on time, preventing them from overriding, since the fruits collected in the rain will quickly deteriorate.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The popularity of the variety is due to an impressive list of advantages:
- excellent taste and excellent aroma of gooseberry fruit;
- high yield: on one bush 2-6 kg of berries can ripen;
- ripe gooseberry fruits are easily picked, but not crumble;
- high resistance to attacks of diseases and pests: it is not afraid of pests such as butterflies, fireflies, pine sawflies, as well as common diseases, such as powdery mildew, anthracnose;
- stable fruiting of bushes of a selection variety for 15–20 years;
- resistance to sharp changes in temperature conditions: the variety was obtained by crossing frost-resistant varieties, so lowering the temperature to -35 ° C is not terrible for him. If the indicator of the thermometer drops below -35 ° C, then the variety bred by breeders may die if it is not covered in time;
- self-pollination, which contributes to high yield of bushes;
- excellent keeping quality and transportability of berries;
- the ability to plant bushes at close distances from each other, due to their compactness;
- high gastronomic and biological estimates of the fruit, which is caused by a large measure of the versatility of their use;
- ease of reproduction;
- undemanding and easy care of the culture.
- According to gardeners, gooseberries have minor flaws:
- fear of drought: throughout the growing season, gooseberry bushes need to be watered;
- high prickly bushes;
- excessive density of the crown;
- it is necessary to ensure that the crop does not overripe.
The cultivation of the Ural emerald is reduced to timely planting, reproduction, properly organized irrigation, cleaning the site of weeds, pruning and fertilizing.
Did you know? Gooseberries symbolize peace, prosperity and measured life.
Ural emerald prefers well-lit southern areas. It is important that the bushes grow in the open sun, since the shaded conditions provoke the oppression of the bushes, they will not feel comfortable.
It is worth taking into account the fact of occurrence of groundwater: if they are too close to the soil, then such a plot is not suitable for the variety. It is also impossible to choose for planting lowlands that can be flooded by rain or meltwater, because excessive humidity adversely affects the quantity and quality of the crop, and is also fraught with the appearance of fungal diseases.
Important! The optimum groundwater depth for this variety is 1 m from the upper soil layer.
Landing and care
Ural emerald can be planted both in spring and autumnbut the spring season is considered more favorable. In spring, the gooseberry variety is propagated by horizontal layering, and in the fall - by cuttings.
Most gardeners prefer spring planting, because they consider it more effective. For spring planting, you should choose a healthy uterine bush and press its lateral branches to the ground (for this purpose you can use special brackets). Rooting of cuttings will be carried out throughout the summer, and in the fall they should be separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Important! Immediately before planting, place the stem in a weak manganese solution for 4 hours to disinfect, and then hold it in the HB-101 growth stimulator for another 4 hours.
When choosing cuttings for planting, pay attention to the features of the appearance of the plant and cuttings:
- uterine bush should be trimmed in a timely manner;
- on shoots, and on cuttings, there should not be damaged kidneys;
- make sure that the leaves on the bush are clean and free from painful spots;
- cuttings should have a smooth, dark green bark;
- root stalk must have at least 3 shoots, up to 25 cm long;
- be sure to inspect the root system of the handle: it should be free from damage, traces of disease, or dry roots.
If you decide to plant the Ural emerald for the first time, it is recommended to purchase planting material in a specialized store where you will receive the necessary recommendations regarding planting and avoiding qualified specialists.
Important! Autumn planting should be carried out 3 weeks before the first frost.
The direct landing procedure consists of the following steps:
- Preparation of the planting site (weeding the plot, loosening the soil, harvesting weeds and the remains of previous plants).
- Fertilize the site by applying humus (1 bucket / 1 m²) and wood ash (1 l / 1 m²).
- Digging of landing holes with a depth of 60 cm and a diameter of 40 cm. The distance between the holes should be equal to 1.5 m.
- Drainage holes in loamy soil 10-15 cm layer of crushed stone.
- Preparation of a planting knoll from a mixture of fertile soil dug from one hole, humus or compost (1.5–2 buckets) and superphosphate (250 g). 2/3 of the mixture should be used to form a knoll, the top of which should slightly extend beyond the upper soil layer.
- Uniform distribution of the root system on the knoll in the hole. To deepen the seedling into the soil you need to sprout the point (the junction of the roots with shoots).
- Separation of shoots, so that there is no contact between them.
- Filling of the landing hole with the cuttings of the remaining part of the fertile mixture.
- Abundant watering 2/3 buckets of water.
- Removal of kidneys at ground level. At the top of the handle, 4 buds should remain.
- Mulching the topsoil with peat or sand, you can even moss.
Caring for the Ural emerald includes watering. Watering the culture is necessary every 7 days, spending 2-3 buckets of water on 1 bush. After each watering, the soil needs to be loosened so that a crust does not form on it.
The cultivation of the Ural emerald includes such a measure of care as fertilizer. So, top dressing varieties need to be carried out 3 times per season. In the spring, before the start of the growing season, nitrogen and rotted manure are introduced. Nitrogen is needed to build green mass.
The time of application of the second fertilizer is the flowering period of gooseberries: they should receive potassium-phosphorus fertilizing (about 20–100 g / 1 water for each plant). In autumn, gooseberries are fed with potassium (about 20–100 g / 1 water for each plant).
Pest and Disease Control
Despite the resistance of the Ural emerald to major diseases and pests, gooseberries, although rare, can succumb to their attacks.
Did you know? Kiwi is a cultivated Chinese gooseberry.
The selection species may be affected by:
- Powdery Mildew. They recognize the disease by a whitish coating on foliage and shoots. The coating quickly condenses and darkens. The set fruits begin to dry out and fall off. Foliage of plants curls and falls. If no measures are taken, then after 2 years the bush will die. The fight against the disease consists in spraying the bushes with Fitosporin, Fundazol or a solution of iron sulfate. You can also treat the bushes and the soil beneath them with Nitrafen.
- Anthracnose, which reports itself by the appearance of white glossy spots, which soon acquire a brown color, as well as drying and falling of leaves. A control measure is spraying with a solution of copper sulfate (100 g / 10 l of water). They process the bushes 4 times, every 15–20 days later.
- Septoria. Its appearance is signaled by brown spots that cover the foliage and berries. As the disease progresses, the center of the spots turns white, and the leaves begin to curl and fall. In order to eliminate the disease, diseased bushes are treated with Nitrafen solution. The first time the plant is sprayed upon detection of symptoms, and the second after the harvest.
In rare cases, the Ural emerald suffers from the following pests:
- Aphids - small green insects, which lead to twisting, falling leaves, slowing down the growth of culture. To make sure there are aphids on the bushes, just look at the bottom of the leaf. Eliminate the uninvited guest by spraying with Actellic. Ants carry aphids, so if there is an ant hill near the area where gooseberries grow, it needs to be removed.
- Caterpillarslaid by butterflies by the pale-footed gooseberry sawfly. One butterfly lays up to 150 eggs and hatches 3 generations of caterpillars per season. As a result, entire colonies of sawflies are formed on the site. Insecticide - Actellik, Karbofos insecticides.
Effectively carry out preventive measures to protect the planting of their crops from the listed diseases. For prevention purposes, gooseberries are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (150 g / 10 l of water). Spraying should be carried out in the spring, before the buds open, and in the fall.
As a prophylactic, fungicides “Fitosporin”, “Fundazol”, “Oksih”, “Topaz” are used. Also, breeders recommend timely organization of weeding and rid the site of weeds.
Important! Cut branches, shoots and fallen leaves from diseased plants must be burned.
Trimming and bush formation
In order for the bushes of the Ural emerald to bear fruit well, it is necessary to prune them in a timely manner, starting from the moment when the plant reaches the age of 4-5 years. Pruning prevents thickening of the gooseberry crown. The optimal pruning time is early spring, late summer.
It is necessary to remove the old shoots, leaving 10-15 branches. Every season you need to cut old branches, because shoots that have reached 7-8 years of age, practically cease to bear fruit. New shoots will form and update the bush. Also, from a bush of 6 years of age, you need to trim 2-3 new shoots every season so that the bush does not become dense. Depending on the density of planting bushes on the site, there should be from 8 to 20 shoots in one bush.
Despite the endurance of the Ural emerald, bushes still need to be prepared for winter.
Important! Ural gooseberries are not damaged by rodents.
Such training includes the following activities:
- cleaning the soil under the bushes from all plant debris - they need to be burned;
- digging the soil under the bushes of culture;
- sanitary cutting of old, damaged, broken branches;
- soil treatment under the bush with manganese solution;
- watering plants in order to enhance the development of the root system;
- mulching the soil cover with a 10-centimeter layer of humus or peat;
- hilling plants with snow with the onset of winter.
Harvesting and transportation
Harvest of the Ural emerald is harvested in late June - early July. Gather delicious berries in dry weather, which is the key to their good storage. To protect yourself from the spiky spikes of gooseberries, wear gloves and long-sleeved clothing.
The collection procedure consists in lifting the branch up with one hand, and with the other you need to pluck the berries with the stem. Fully ripened berries are dried and placed in a free container. They will keep a fresh look for 4-5 days.
Better stored not fully ripe berries.If they are placed in conditions with a temperature of 0 ° C and a humidity of 90%, the storage period will increase to 1.5 months. Berries placed in plastic bags will be stored for 3-4 months, but the optimum temperature for this is + 2 ° C. The fruits of the Ural emerald well tolerate transportation even to fairly distant distances.
Ural emerald - a real gift to gardeners from breeders. An impressive list of advantages of gooseberries leaves no one indifferent, and its berries are not only a source of excellent taste and excellent aroma, but also a storehouse of vitamins and minerals necessary for the body. It’s easy to grow a variety; caring for it also does not require much effort. And the result is impressive: large fruits with huge possibilities of use.