Gooseberries: planting and care in the open field in the fall, benefits
Gooseberry autumn planting has its own characteristics, knowing which, a gardener can provide the plant with the best conditions for survival and wintering. The article discusses the rules of planting and care, and also describes the options for reproduction and ways to protect plants from diseases and pests.
When to plant: in spring or autumn
You can diversify your garden with a new berry bush both in autumn and spring.
- However, planting gooseberry seedlings in the fall has several advantages:
- the seedling survival rate is higher in autumn;
- a plant with the beginning of spring immediately enters growth, without wasting power on rooting;
- the possibility of harvesting in the first season.
Dates of autumn planting in different regions
In order for the gooseberry root system to take root and the plant does not freeze in winter, it is necessary to plant at the right time. Rooting a seedling takes about 20 days., and it is precisely such an interval before the onset of frost that must be ensured.
On average, this period begins from mid-September to mid-October, depending on the region of residence.
Did you know? In the 70s of the XX century in Germany, a hybrid of gooseberries and black currants was created, which is called yoshta. The hybrid has no thorns and is resistant to many diseases and pests.
According to the lunar calendar
Many gardeners when planting and caring for plants adhere to the recommendations of the lunar calendar. According to them, every month there are favorable and unfavorable days for planting and transplanting.
For gooseberries in the fall of 2019, the following data are presented:
- the best days for landing in September are 8–9, 18–19, and 22–24;
- the best days for landing in October are the 15–16 and 20–21 dates;
- it is not recommended to land on September 27–29 and October 27–29.
The plant can have fruits of different shades of green and red. When choosing a variety should pay attention to the tasting characteristics of berries and plant resistance to disease. The absence of thorns will greatly facilitate harvesting, and after planting several bushes with an early ripening period, you can get a tasty and healthy berry longer. Almost all gooseberry varieties are partially self-fertile, but pollen pollination with other varieties increases both the size of the berries and the overall yield.
Did you know? In ancient Greece and Rome they did not know anything about gooseberries, therefore, there are no legends or myths about its origin.
The sweetest of the zoned varieties are:
- Beryl - Its bushes are distinguished by excellent winter hardiness and high productivity (3–10 kg per bush). The shoots are studded only in the lower part, which does not interfere with the collection of large (2.8–3.4 g) light green berries. Sensitive to Septoria, resistant to powdery mildew.
- Ural Emerald - has an average number of spikes along the entire length of the shoots and gives from 2.1 to 5.6 kg per bush. The weight of green berries is on average 4.3 g. The undersized bush is frost-resistant and quite resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, sawflies and fireworks.
- Pink-2 - It is quite demanding on the growing conditions, but its dark red berries weighing 5–7 g (up to 10 g) received 4.9–5 points for the taste. Spikes on the shoots are few. The winter hardiness of the variety is average, and the yield is 3-4 kg per bush.
In order for the plant to bring a full-fledged crop, it is necessary to provide it with an optimal position on the site. Seedling quality and proper planting are also important components of success.
In general, gooseberries are unpretentious crops. The main conditions that the place of landing must comply with are:
- good illumination;
- strong wind protection;
- groundwater level not higher than 1 m.
Often bushes are planted between dwarf fruit trees or near a fence, which provides good protection of plants from the wind.
Flooding is detrimental to the gooseberry root system, so the site should not be flooded during snowmelt
It is not recommended to plant gooseberries after raspberries or currants, as these crops have common pests. It is worth considering that the plant can bear fruit in one place for up to 20 years or more. When planting several bushes, approximately 1.25–1.5 m should be left between them (depending on the variety). Too thickened placement subsequently leads to a lack of light and air, the rapid development of diseases and a decrease in productivity.
The culture will not grow on acidified soils, the soil should be loamy or sandy loam, with a good percentage of organic matter. If the acidity is higher than 5.5 pH, lime should be added to the soil, at the rate of 200-300 g per 1 m².
Selection and preparation of planting material
For variety matching seedlings should be bought from trusted suppliers, for example, in fruit nurseries and garden centers. If the plant is sold with an open root system, it should be clumpy and consist of 3-5 lignified roots with a length of 10 cm or more. A two-year-old seedling should consist of 2-3 shoots with a length of about 30 cm.
Saplings of the following types are on sale:
- Open root system and almost bare roots. Such planting material takes root for a long time, and it should be planted in early autumn. Such a seedling should already be in the phase of growth cessation, i.e., have lignified shoots and hard, already falling leaves.
- With a lump of earththat completely covers the roots. The ground must be moist, and if the plant is covered with burlap on top, it must be deployed with great care. Sometimes the lump is fixed with a mesh, which can not be removed.
- In container. Such a seedling can be planted at any time, but in some cases, the roots of the plant due to a long stay in the pot may begin to bend inward and such a bush will not form new roots for a long time already in a constant place.
At the end of summer, you should prepare a pit with a depth of about 50 cm, into which the following mixture is filled up to half the volume:
- 2 buckets of fertile land;
- 1 bucket of compost;
- 50 g of double superphosphate;
- 40 g of potassium sulfate.
Then, the remaining soil is poured into the pit with a knoll and left for 2 weeks to allow the soil to settle. Gooseberry planting is performed according to this scheme:
- The seedling is placed on the knoll and spread the roots on its surface. Some gardeners recommend placing the seedling obliquely, which should lead to the appearance of a large number of roots.
- They fill the hole with earth, deepening the root neck of the bush by 5–7 cm.
- The soil around the plant is tamped.
- The bush is abundantly watered and mulched.
Gooseberry care is comparable to care for currant bushes, but it also has some features that will be discussed below.
Watering, top dressing
Gooseberries are sensitive to moisture near the root neck, so they should not be watered directly under the root. It is best to dig a small groove around the crown for this purpose. Watering the plant is necessary at such times:
- after flowering;
- in the phase of ripening berries;
- after harvesting.
In warm, dry autumn, water-loading irrigation is also carried out (30 liters per bush), but if September was rainy, it can be excluded
The culture needs additional nutrition, as it is characterized by high productivity. Starting from the period of opening the buds and to stop the growth of new shoots, gooseberries especially need nitrogen, and after removing the fruits, it should be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
For an adult bush during the year, about 20 kg of manure or 80–120 g of superphosphate, 70–100 g of potassium chloride and 65–80 g of ammonium nitrate will be needed. It is recommended to alternate the use of organic and mineral dressings after a year.
During the formation of berries, gooseberries can be fed with a solution of mullein, bird droppings or such a composition (per bucket of water):
- 30-50 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 20-30 g of potassium chloride;
- 50–80 g of superphosphate.
Loosening, weed removal
To ensure rapid growth, young gooseberries need moist, loose and clean soil. As soon as the snow falls, you should loosen and mulch the ground under the bushes.For mulching, you can take both organic peat, humus or straw, and a black film in which cuts are made for irrigation and top dressing.
Important! The depth of cultivation of the earth should not exceed 10 cm, since the root system of the culture is not deep.
Cropping, seasonal features
Trimming gooseberries during planting creates conditions for active spring growth and branching. Each shoot needs to be shortened to 2–4 buds. In the spring, when new shoots begin to grow, they leave 3-5 pieces, and the rest are cut. In varieties with low branching, the tops of these shoots should be shortened, and if the variety branches well, this step can be omitted.
Sanitary pruning is carried out throughout the growing season, removing diseased and broken parts of the plant. After 6-8 years of fruiting, the shoot forms smaller berries, and such a branch is cut
Such pruning is performed every year, an adult bush should consist of 3-4 branches of each year. With a sufficient distance between plants, you can increase the number of shoots of one year. In this case, you should pay attention to the growth of a specific instance:
- with the active growth of young shoots, intensive pruning is carried out;
- if the number of new branches is small, pruning is reduced.
Important! Experienced gardeners recommend leaving on 1–2 zero shoots more in case of branch damage. Such escape shoots are subsequently removed.
The ripening period of fruits depends, first of all, on a specific variety. Early ripe gooseberries require 30–40 days after flowering for ripening, mid-ripening 40–50 days, and later varieties will be ready in 50–60 days. It affects both the growing region and the desired type of ripeness (technical or biological).In the stage of technical ripeness, the berries will have a characteristic color, but the taste will still not gain the desired sweetness. Such fruits are used for processing on compote or jam.
For fresh consumption, berries must achieve biological ripeness, which, in addition to color, is characterized by a change in density and drying of the tail. On average, technical ripeness occurs 2 weeks earlier.
Ripening after picking is not typical for gooseberry berries, but with high humidity throughout the summer, fruits should be removed ahead of time, otherwise they will crack.
Unlike springless, varieties whose shoots have sharp spikes require special care when harvesting. Wear protective gloves and long-sleeved clothing. If it is inconvenient to work with gloves, you can fix the branch with one hand using long tongs, and pick berries with the other hand.
There are also special devices for collecting gooseberries:
- vibration devices are used by placing a film under the bush, and the berries that have fallen after vibrations are sorted by ripening;
- the metal comb has 5 cloves, they put it on the hand, and then they run along the shoot, pressing it to the base, and the berries fall into the palm of your hand.
Important! In order for ripe berries to preserve their integrity, they should be picked with the stem.
Fruits for storage must be dry. In the stage of technical ripeness, they can be stored in a cool and dark place for about 4 days. According to experienced gardeners, at 0 ° C the crop lasts up to 40 days.
Ripe berries are placed in a container with a volume of not more than 2 liters for transportation or a larger volume for processing
After leaf fall fallen leaves should be removedso that the eggs of pests and pathogens from it are destroyed. For the same reason, organic mulch is removed, in which the fire-doll pups winter.
If the amount of snow is insignificant during severe frosts, the root system of the plant may freeze. To avoid this, all fallen snow should be picked up under the bush, covering it as high as possible.
Best of all, this culture is propagated by lignified cuttings and horizontal layering. You can also use vertical and arcuate cuttings, but they produce fewer seedlings.
They are harvested in early spring, until the buds open. Cuttings must be cut from a healthy bush no older than 8-10 years, choosing root shoots or annual growths. On average, the stalk should have a length of about 20 cm and contain a minimum of 4–5 buds. Cuttings of better quality are obtained from the upper part of shoots and root shoots.
Soaked for a day in water with a stimulator, the cuttings are planted at an angle of 5 × 10 cm, while only one kidney should remain above the soil.
Rooting is carried out in a special trench ("school") with coarse sand 30 cm deep
Planting is mulched with 5 cm of humus and until the end of summer is fed with a solution of the following composition:
- 10 liters of water;
- 20 g of superphosphate and potassium salt;
- 40 g of ammonium nitrate.
In the spring of next year, rooted cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Video: How to propagate gooseberries
One layering can give from 6 seedlings, since a new one will grow from each bud of the shoot. Reproduction in this way is also carried out in early spring. A young root shoot is suitable for layering, which is bent into a sand ditch next to the main plant. The layering is fixed with a bracket horizontally, and its apex is shortened by 2-3 cm. When the new shoot from the lay reaches 10-15 cm, it is spudded to form additional roots.
Diseases and Pests
The most dangerous gooseberry diseases are:
- Septoria - dangerous for all varieties. It is recommended that the entire plant and the soil be treated under it with the preparations of Skor or Oxychloride before flowering and after picking berries.
- Sphere library (powdery mildew) - many modern varieties already have resistance to it. This fungal disease is especially dangerous for young seedlings, it affects not only foliage and shoots, but also berries. For protection, treatment with Topaz or Strobi preparations is used immediately after the appearance of leaves and after 2 weeks.
The gardener should be most wary of the gooseberry flare and the gooseberry yellow sawfly. For prevention, the bushes are treated after the appearance of buds with karbofos or special biological products, with a repeat after flowering. Autumn digging under the plant with hilling by 10–12 cm also helps.
Important! Gooseberries are not suitable preparations with sulfur, because they cause the plant to premature fall of foliage.
An effective measure to combat pest larvae and fungal spores is to water the bush and soil with boiling water before the start of the growing seasonuntil the kidneys are still swollen. The process should be performed at a time, each branch of the plant should fall under the water. To do this, it is advisable to pull the bush a little with a rope and water it from a watering can, spending about 10 liters of boiling water on one gooseberry.
Correctly planting gooseberries in the fall and observing the basic rules for caring for this crop throughout the year, you can get a high yield in almost any area. Particular attention should be paid to pest protection and preventive measures to prevent fungal diseases.