Black currant Veloy - features and characteristics of the variety
Currant of the Veloy or Leningradskaya sweet variety was bred in the last century, but thanks to the high quality indicators of the crop and the resistance of the vegetation to adverse environmental conditions, it still occupies one of the first places among farmers. When growing a crop on your own site, you must first familiarize yourself with its botanical characteristics, as well as take into account the pros and cons.
Description of Veloy blackcurrant variety (Leningradskaya sweet)
The variety under consideration has collected many positive reviews among the farmers of the northern regions and the central zone, as it has high frost resistance and is not susceptible to diseases progressing in such a climate.
The bushes freely survive frosts down to –45 ° С without shelter, they rarely suffer from attack by a kidney tick and powdery mildew infection. Like all types of blackcurrant, due to the close proximity of stones to the soil surface, drought is poorly tolerated, therefore, watering should be given special attention when growing a crop.
The main botanical characteristics of vegetation:
- the rhizome of the fibrous type does not have the main shaft process, but is a lush mass of thin suction roots localized at a depth of 1-60 cm. It has a high regenerative ability, therefore, even when damaged during loosening of the soil, the vegetation does not suffer;
- semi-spreading bushes, not thickened, up to 1.5 m high;
- annual growths are thick, pubescent, colored unevenly in pinkish color;
- old shoots to the apex become thinner, painted in a gray-brown shade, pubescence is retained;
- leaf plates are large, five-lobed, painted in a dark green matte color, downy along the veins;
- flowers are large, goblet, green-white with a slight pink, very pubescent;
- the pistil is located on the same level with the stamens, which ensures the ability of vegetation to self-pollination;
- ovaries unpainted, very pubescent, with a large number of glands;
- brushes of short (1.7–3.8 cm) and medium size (5.8 cm), thickened along the axis, durable;
- berries are evenly distributed throughout the brush for 5-8 pcs., they have no petioles.
Video: Veloy currant
The variety was obtained at the Pavlovsky experimental station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Production named after N. I. Vavilova. The Leningrad giant and Ojebin were used as parental forms for crossing. The originators of the variety unit were E.V. Volodina, S.P. Khotimskaya and N. Khabarova.
The culture was included in the State Register in 1993. It is zoned in the Northern, North-Western and Central regions.
Did you know? The name "currant" comes from the word "stench", which means "smell". To explain the origin is quite simple, because the vegetation really has a strong pleasant aroma.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Varietal unit refers to varieties of medium-late ripening period. Berries ripen around mid-July. The yield from the bush is up to 4 kg. The plant has a high rate of early maturity: the first crop begins to yield a year after planting. It bears fruit well without the presence of nearby pollinating plants.
The berries are dense, large, spherical or flat-round, weighing from 1.8 to 3.7 g.
The skin is thin, painted black, slightly shiny. The pulp is loose in structure, very juicy. It has a pleasant sweet taste with a delicate, barely perceptible sourness and a distinct aroma characteristic of currants.
The vitamin and mineral composition of the fruits of the currant of the variety in question:
- proteins - 1 g;
- fats - 0.4 g;
- carbohydrates - 7.3 g;
- dietary fiber - 4.8 g;
- organic acids - 2.3 g;
- water - 83.3 g;
- ash - 0.9 g.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Grade Advantages:
- increased winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases, as well as to damage by pests;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- high productivity;
- excellent taste of the fruit.
- Cons of culture:
- berries when overripe begin to crack;
- low drought tolerance.
In order for the plant in question to bear fruit abundantly and not be affected by diseases or pests, you need to correctly select the site and carry out pre-planting work on it. After planting, the culture will need minimal care, which even a beginner will cope with.
Important! With a lack of lighting, the quantity and quality of the crop decreases: the berries become acidic.
Seat selection and landing
The landing place must meet the following requirements:
- the lighting is plentiful;
- there is no draft;
- groundwater location - 1.5 m;
- soil quality - loams with neutral acidity (5–7 pH).
In view of the above, you need to select the territory on the south or southeast side of the site, protected from the north from the wind. It is best to plant in the spring, before the swelling of the kidneys.You can plant vegetation near the outbuildings or a fence.
Site preparation begins in the autumn. It is cleaned of plant debris, dug to a depth of 40 cm. Next, the soil is sprayed with 3% solution of copper sulfate (1 l / 10 m²). A week later, for digging to a depth of 20 cm, 20 kg of manure, 10 kg of sand, 400 g of wood ash are applied per m².
In the spring, 2 weeks before planting, pits 40 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter are prepared. The top layer (20 cm) of soil from each well is mixed with 10 kg of compost and 20 g of superphosphate. The resulting nutrient substrate fills the pits at 1/3 of the height, pour 10 liters of water.The day before planting, seedlings are inspected - dried branches are cut off if necessary, roots are shortened to 25 cm. The rhizome of planting material in Zircon solution is soaked overnight (1 ampoule per bucket of water).
Step-by-step landing process:
- In the center of the pit, form an elevation from the nutrient substrate, place the roots of the plant on it.
- Carefully spread the rhizome along the entire perimeter of the pit, sprinkle with soil, not reaching the end of the pit 10 cm.
- Pour 5 liters of water and wait until it is absorbed.
- Fill the pit with soil to the top, pour another 5 liters of water.
- After absorbing moisture, mulch the trunk circle with compost.
- Shoots shorten to 3 healthy, powerful buds. Cut the stems to a height of 20–25 cm.
Important! If the irrigation schedule coincides with the rainy period, then they refuse to hold the event. Otherwise, planting may be affected by root rot.
One of the most important agricultural activities is watering. It is carried out as follows:
- from the moment of kidney swelling - 10 l of water per bush every 2-3 weeks, given the weather conditions;
- during the appearance of flower buds - 15 liters of fluid per plant;
- at the time of fruit setting - 15 l of water per bush;
- in mid-September - early October - 20 liters of liquid per m².
After each irrigation and rain, the topsoil should be loosened. To do this, use not sharpened glanders. The depth of cultivation should not exceed 3 cm. Immediately after this, it is better to mulch the soil with compost or sawdust.. This approach will help preserve moisture in the soil, as well as protect against the spread of harmful microorganisms.
Growing currants, it is better to give an advantage to top dressing on a natural basis. They begin to conduct them 2 years after planting according to this schedule (the number of fertilizers is calculated per 1 bush):
- before the kidneys swell, in parallel with the first watering - add 1 liter of liquid mullein or 300 g of dry chicken droppings to 10 liters of water;
- during fruit setting - add 500 g of nettle, 1 banana peel to 5 l of boiling water, insist 1 hour, filter and mix with 10 l of pure water (you can pour part of the resulting solution under the root, and use part for spraying on a sheet);
- at the time of pouring berries - add 500 g of wood ash under the roots of plants;
- in parallel with autumn watering - add 1 kg of humus, 300 g of mullein to 20 liters of water.
Video: Drip irrigation of currants
Pest and Disease Control
The described type of currant is extremely rarely affected by diseases and pests. With improper care or adverse weather conditions (prolonged drought, high humidity), infection with fungal spores and parasites is possible:
|Type of lesion||Manifestations||Problem Solving Methods|
|Powdery mildew||a whitish fluffy coating appears on the leaves and shoots, consisting of fungal spores||remove infected areas of the plant and burn them, treat with Fitoverm according to the instructions, treat the bushes and the soil around them with 3% copper sulfate at the end of the season|
|Anthracnose||leaf blades are covered with small brown spots||cut the leaves damaged by the disease, burn, treat the sheet with 1% colloidal sulfur solution|
|Septoria||rounded serous spots with darker blotches appear on the sheets||remove infected parts of the plant, treat the bushes with 3% Nitrafen solution|
|Aphid||small green or black bugs feed on the juice of the foliage, as a result of which it curls and dries out||eliminate damaged shoots and leaves, dust with tobacco dust on bushes and soil, at the end and beginning of the season, be sure to treat plantings with 3% solution of copper sulfate or 1% - “Nitrafen”|
|Gallitsa||the insect looks like a mosquito with a red abdomen, eats leaf juice, as a result of which they become brown, dry and crumble||remove dried shoots and foliage from the bushes, treat the bush with a solution of 10 l of water, 30 g of “Karbofos” and 20 g of “Chlorofos”|
|Kidney tick||the females lay eggs in the buds of shoots; when infected with these parasites, strongly bloated growth points appear on the plants, which do not naturally stand out from the rest||spray with a solution of colloidal sulfur (add 10 g of substance to 10 liters of water)|
Trimming and shaping a bush
Aronia species of currants form a crop on branches of three to four years of age and on small annual growths. Skeletal cease to bear fruit in 5-6 years, additional - after 2-3 crops. Given this, it is necessary to conduct regular anti-aging pruning, aimed at removing old and stimulating new fruitful growths.
From the second year of plant life on the plot in July, all available shoots are shortened by 15 cm. In the autumn, new zero (growing from the soil) shoots are cut off, selecting only the 3 most promising ones that will become skeletal in the future. Also prune, thickening the crown growths are subject to pruning.Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
In the third year of plant life, pruning is the elimination of all underdeveloped and thickening crown shoots. In July, the annual growth is shortened by 15 cm, on older branches, 3 strong buds are left. In the future, up to 5-6 years, pruning is carried out according to the same scheme.After this time, the bushes will need a more serious anti-aging pruning with the removal of already prolific shoots. They are cut to the very root along with the shoot. In the future, they work according to an already familiar scheme.
Preparing for the winter
The currant species in question tolerates winters well even without shelter. The only thing to take care of is the protection of the roots, as they are located close to the surface of the soil. To do this, after carrying out all the necessary measures before the season closure (top dressing, watering, pruning, etc.), the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of compost 10 cm high: this is the end of the winter preparations.
Did you know? In unripe berries of currant, active ascorbic acid is 4 times more than in ripe.
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Harvest at a time. Getting started is best in the morning when the dew is gone, or in the evening when the heat is gone. Fruits harvested in sunny, hot or rainy weather deteriorate very quickly.
If you plan to transport the berries, then you need to collect when they are in the technical stage of maturity, along with the stalks (whole brushes). When planning on-site use, the fruits are removed from the bushes at the stage of physical maturity, separating them from the hands. The crop is transported in boxes or baskets with a capacity of 3-6 kg.Storage periods directly depend on the method:
- at room temperature in fresh form - no more than 3 days;
- grated with sugar - almost 6 months;
- in the refrigerator at a temperature of +4 ... + 6 ° C - about 3 weeks;
- with a minus mode - 12 months;
- in the form of jam (even at room temperature) - almost 3 years.